Physical Conditions

an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta associated with old age and hypertension
dislocation of a joint
inability to walk
abasia trepidans
abasia due to trembling of the legs
abdominal actinomycosis
a serious form of actinomycosis that affects the abdomen
abdominal pregnancy
ectopic pregnancy in the abdominal cavity
a state or condition markedly different from the norm
a disorder in one's mental state
a rare inherited disorder of fat metabolism; characterized by severe deficiency of beta-lipoproteins and abnormal red blood cells (acanthocytes) and abnormally low cholesterol levels
a congenital absence of eyelids (partial or complete)
an abnormal physical condition resulting from defective genes or developmental deficiencies
the condition in which the upper teeth do not touch the lower teeth when biting
the condition of having no arms
an abraded area where the skin is torn or worn off
abruptio placentae
a disorder of pregnancy in which the placenta prematurely separates from the wall of the uterus
the presence of acanthocytes in the blood stream (as in abetalipoproteinemia)
a breakdown of a cell layer in the epidermis (as in pemphigus)
a neoplasm originating in the epidermis
an abnormal but benign thickening of the prickle-cell layer of the skin (as in psoriasis)
acanthosis nigricans
a skin disease characterized by dark wartlike patches in the body folds; can be benign or malignant
a state in which the level of carbon dioxide in the blood is lower than normal; can result from deep or rapid breathing
congenital absence of the heart (as in the development of some monsters)
a morbid fear of small insects and mites and worms
a disorder in which a lesion to the central nervous system leaves you unable to formulate a statement or to express yourself in an organized manner
an inability to retain bodily secretions
absence of the head (as in the development of some monsters)
an abnormal deficiency or absence of free hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice; often associated with severe anemias and cancer of the stomach
a condition in which little or no bile is secreted or the flow of bile into the digestive tract is obstructed
an inherited skeletal disorder beginning before birth; cartilage is converted to bone resulting in dwarfism
absence of gastric juices (partial or complete)
a blood disorder characterized by an increased concentration of hydrogen ions in the blood (which falls below 7 on the pH scale)
abnormally high acidity (excess hydrogen-ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues
an inflammatory disease involving the sebaceous glands of the skin; characterized by papules or pustules or comedones
acne rosacea
a skin disease of adults (more often women) in which blood vessels of the face enlarge resulting in a flushed appearance
acne vulgaris
the most common form of acne; usually affects people from puberty to young adulthood
absence of the pupil in an eye
acoustic aphasia
an impairment in understanding spoken language that is not attributable to hearing loss
a morbid fear of sounds including your own voice
acquired hemochromatosis
hemochromatosis resulting from repeated transfusions or from excessive intake of foods containing iron
loss of sensation in the extremities
a congenital abnormality of the skull; the top of the skull assumes a cone shape
enlargement of bones of hands and feet and face; often accompanied by headache and muscle pain and emotional disturbances; caused by overproduction of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary gland (due to a tumor)
abnormally small extremities (underdeveloped fingers and toes)
abnormal protrusion of the navel; sometimes the start of umbilical hernia
a morbid fear of great heights
actinic dermatitis
dermatitis caused exposure to sunlight
actinic keratosis
an overgrowth of skin layers resulting from extended exposure to the sun
disease of cattle that can be transmitted to humans; results from infection with actinomycetes; characterized by hard swellings that exude pus through long sinuses
acute anterior poliomyelitis
an acute viral disease marked by inflammation of nerve cells of the brain stem and spinal cord
acute brain disorder
any disorder (as sudden confusion or disorientation) in an otherwise normal person that is due to reversible (temporary) impairment of brain tissues (as by head injuries or drugs or infection)
acute glaucoma
glaucoma in which the iris blocks the outflow of aqueous humor
acute kidney failure
renal failure associated with burns or other trauma or with acute infection or obstruction of the urinary tract
acute leukemia
rapidly progressing leukemia
acute lymphoblastic leukemia
acute leukemia characterized by proliferation of immature lymphoblast-like cells in bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, and blood; most common in children
acute myelocytic leukemia
acute leukemia characterized by proliferation of granular leukocytes; most common in adolescents and young adults
acute pyelonephritis
pyelonephritis resulting from the spread of a bladder infection
SCID resulting from mutation of a gene that codes for adenosine deaminase
congenital absence of fingers and/or toes
being abnormally tolerant to and dependent on something that is psychologically or physically habit-forming (especially alcohol or narcotic drugs)
Addison's syndrome
a glandular disorder caused by failure of function of the cortex of the adrenal gland and marked by anemia and prostration with brownish skin
malignant tumor originating in glandular epithelium
a benign epithelial tumor of glandular origin
adenomatous polyp
a polyp that consists of benign neoplastic tissue derived from glandular epithelium
gland enlargement
the presence of endometrium elsewhere than in the lining of the uterus; causes premenstrual pain and dysmenorrhea
a glandular disease or enlargement of glandular tissue (especially of the lymph glands)
a disorder of the glands of the body
abnormal union of bodily tissues; most common in the abdomen
adipose tumor
a tumor consisting of fatty tissue
pain resulting from rapid change in pressure
affective disorder
any mental disorder not caused by detectable organic abnormalities of the brain and in which a major disturbance of emotions is predominant
a condition of suffering or distress due to ill health
the absence of fibrinogen in the plasma leading to prolonged bleeding
a condition in which milk is not secreted in the mother's breasts after her child has been delivered
a rare immunological disorder characterized by the virtual absence of gamma globulin in the blood and consequent susceptibility to infection
agitated depression
a state of clinical depression in which the person exhibits irritability and restlessness
inability to recognize objects by use of the senses
a morbid fear of open spaces (as fear of being caught alone in some public place)
an acute blood disorder (often caused by radiation or drug therapy) characterized by severe reduction in granulocytes
a loss of the ability to write or to express thoughts in writing because of a brain lesion
a fit of shivering or shaking
a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles
an often persistent bodily disorder or disease; a cause for complaining
a morbid fear of cats
air sickness
motion sickness experienced while traveling by air (especially during turbulence)
motionlessness attributable to a temporary paralysis
akinetic epilepsy
epilepsy characterized by akinesia
paralysis of the vocal cords resulting in an inability to speak
Albers-Schonberg disease
an inherited disorder characterized by an increase in bone density; in severe forms the bone marrow cavity may be obliterated
the congenital absence of pigmentation in the eyes and skin and hair
Albright's disease
fibrous dysplasia of bone affecting multiple bones
a rare recessive metabolic anomaly marked by ochronosis and the presence of alkapton in the urine
alcohol addiction
habitual intoxication; prolonged and excessive intake of alcoholic drinks leading to a breakdown in health and an addiction to alcohol such that abrupt deprivation leads to severe withdrawal symptoms
alder blight
a disease of alders caused by the woolly alder aphid (a plant louse)
a condition caused by overproduction of aldosterone
a state of readiness to respond
inability to perceive written words
prostration characterized by cold and clammy skin and low blood pressure
a morbid fear of pain
a blood disorder characterized by a lower concentration of hydrogen ions in the blood (which rises above 7.45 on the pH scale)
alkali poisoning
poisoning resulting from the ingestion of an alkali compound (as lye or ammonia)
abnormally high alkalinity (low hydrogen-ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues
allergic eczema
eczema caused by an allergic reaction
altitude sickness
effects (as nosebleed or nausea) of oxygen deficiency in the blood and tissues at high altitudes
alveolar ectasia
abnormal enlargement of the air sacs in the lungs
alveolar resorption
wasting of the bony socket
alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma
form of rhabdomyosarcoma occurring mainly in adolescents and young adults
absence of the mammary glands (either through surgery or developmental defect)
partial or total loss of sight without pathology of the eye; caused by disease of optic nerve or retina or brain
visual impairment without apparent organic pathology
ambulant plague
a mild form of bubonic plague
macular degeneration that is age-related
infection by a disease-causing ameba
amebic dysentery
inflammation of the intestines caused by Endamoeba histolytica; usually acquired by ingesting food or water contaminated with feces; characterized by severe diarrhea
congenital absence of an arm or leg
congenital absence of the uterus
(ophthalmology) faulty refraction of light rays in the eye as in astigmatism or myopia
amnesic aphasia
inability to name objects or to recognize written or spoken names of objects
a condition of disability resulting from the loss of one or more limbs
a disorder characterized by deposit of amyloid in organs or tissues; often secondary to chronic rheumatoid arthritis or tuberculosis or multiple myeloma
a condition in which no mucus in produced
suspended animation in organisms during periods of extreme drought from which they revive when moisture returns
anaclitic depression
severe and progressive depression in infants who lose their mother and do not get a suitable substitute
a deficiency of red blood cells
loss of bodily sensation with or without loss of consciousness
an abnormally low level of albumin in the blood serum
absence of the sense of pain without loss of consciousness
loss of structural differentiation within a cell or group of cells often with increased capacity for multiplication, as in a malignant tumor
a disease of cattle that is transmitted by cattle ticks; similar to Texas fever
partial or total loss of articulate speech resulting from lesions of the central nervous system
abnormal adhesion and rigidity of the bones of a joint
a morbid fear of men
anemic anoxia
anoxia resulting from a decreased concentration of hemoglobin
anemic hypoxia
hypoxia resulting from a decreased concentration of hemoglobin
a defect in brain development resulting in small or missing brain hemispheres
reduction or lack of an immune response to a specific antigen
applies to nonhuman mammals: a state or interval of sexual inactivity between two periods of estrus
an abnormality involving a chromosome number that is not an exact multiple of the haploid number (one chromosome set is incomplete)
a cardiovascular disease characterized by a saclike widening of an artery resulting from weakening of the artery wall
the state of being angry
inflammation of a blood vessel or lymph duct
any disease of the throat or fauces marked by spasmodic attacks of intense suffocative pain
a heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart
a tumor consisting of a mass of blood or lymphatic vessels
any disease of the blood vessels or lymph ducts
a rare malignant neoplasm arising from vascular tissue; usually occurs in the breast and skin and is believed to originate from the endothelial cells of blood vessels
dilation and enlargement of arterioles
failure of the sweat glands
animal disease
a disease that typically does not affect human beings
visual defect in which the shape and size of an ocular image differ in the two eyes
a congenital anomaly in which the mucous membrane under the tongue is too short limiting the mobility of the tongue
annular scotoma
a circular scotoma surrounding the center of the field of vision
deviation from the normal or common order or form or rule
sightlessness (especially because of a structural defect in or the absence of an eye)
absence of one of both testes
a prolonged disorder of eating due to loss of appetite
anorexia nervosa
(psychiatry) a psychological disorder characterized by somatic delusions that you are too fat despite being emaciated
absence of an orgasm in sexual relations
distorted vision in which straight lines appear curved
absence of the sense of smell (as by damage to olfactory nasal tissue or the olfactory nerve or by obstruction of the nasal passages)
abnormally low oxygen content in arterial blood
severe hypoxia; absence of oxygen in inspired gases or in arterial blood or in the tissues
anoxic anoxia
anoxia resulting from defective oxygenation of the blood in the lungs
anterior synechia
adhesion between the iris and the cornea
lung disease caused by inhaling coal dust
a disease of humans that is not communicable; caused by infection with Bacillus anthracis followed by septicemia
anthrax pneumonia
a form of anthrax infection acquired by inhalation of dust containing Bacillus anthracis; initial symptoms (chill and cough and dyspnea and rapid pulse) are followed by extreme cardiovascular collapse
a highly infectious animal disease (especially cattle and sheep); it can be transmitted to people
antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by amorality and lack of affect; capable of violent acts without guilt feelings (`psychopathic personality' was once widely used but was superseded by `sociopathic personality' to indicate the social aspects of the disorder, but now `antisocial personality disorder' is the preferred term)
inability to urinate
anxiety disorder
a cover term for a variety of mental disorders in which severe anxiety is a salient symptom
anxiety hysteria
a form of hysteria having features of both conversion disorder and anxiety neurosis
anxiety neurosis
characterized by diffuse anxiety and often somatic manifestations of fear
aortic aneurysm
an aneurysm of the aorta
aortic stenosis
abnormal narrowing of the aortic valve
loss of the ability to swallow
absence of the natural lens of the eye (usually resulting from the removal of cataracts)
inability to use or understand language (spoken or written) because of a brain lesion
a disorder of the vocal organs that results in the loss of voice
aphthous ulcer
a blister on the mucous membranes of the lips or mouth or gastrointestinal tract
failure of some tissue or organ to develop
aplastic anaemia
anemia characterized by pancytopenia resulting from failure of the bone marrow; can be caused by neoplasm or by toxic exposure
apple blight
a disease of apple trees
inability to make purposeful movements
a morbid fear of drowning
a morbid fear of spiders
acute lung injury characterized by coughing and rales; inflammation of the lungs which become stiff and fibrous and cannot exchange oxygen; occurs among persons exposed to irritants such as corrosive chemical vapors or ammonia or chlorine etc.
Argentine hemorrhagic fever
hemorrhagic fever with neurological signs; caused by the Junin virus
Arnold-Chiari deformity
deformity in which part of the brain protrudes through the skull
a state of heightened physiological activity
awakening from sleep
arrested development
an abnormal state in which development has stopped prematurely
an abnormal rate of muscle contractions in the heart
arterial sclerosis
sclerosis of the arterial walls
an abnormal distension of an artery
sclerosis of the arterioles
arteriosclerosis obliterans
a stage of arteriosclerosis involving closure of blood vessels
inflammation of a joint or joints
a pathology or abnormality of a joint
lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos particles
accumulation of serous fluid in peritoneal cavity
Asian influenza
influenza caused by the Asian virus that was first isolated in 1957
Asiatic cholera
an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food
Asperger's syndrome
a psychiatric disorder usually noted during early school years; characterized by impaired social relations and by repetitive patterns of behavior
disease especially in agricultural workers caused by inhalation of Aspergillus spores causing lumps in skin and ears and respiratory organs
an opportunistic infection by a fungus of the genus Aspergillus; characterized by inflammation and lesions of the ear and other organs
severe respiratory disease of birds that takes the form of an acute rapidly fatal pneumonia in young chickens and turkeys
a condition in which insufficient or no oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged on a ventilatory basis; caused by choking or drowning or electric shock or poison gas
the condition of being deprived of oxygen (as by having breathing stopped)
aspiration pneumonia
inflammation of the lungs caused by inhaling or choking on vomitus; may occur during unconsciousness (anesthesia or drunkenness or seizure or cardiac arrest)
Assam fever
leishmaniasis of the viscera
associative aphasia
aphasia in which the lesion is assumed to be in the association tracts connecting the various language centers in the brain; patient's have difficulty repeating a sentence just heard
inability to stand due to muscular incoordination
a loss of the ability to recognize objects by handling them
an abnormal loss of strength
respiratory disorder characterized by wheezing; usually of allergic origin
(ophthalmology) impaired eyesight resulting usually from irregular conformation of the cornea; common in nearsighted people
a morbid fear of thunder and lightning
the presentation during labor of the head of the fetus at an abnormal angle
absence of coordination of organs or body parts that usually work together harmoniously
absence of systole; failure of the ventricles of the heart to contract (usually caused by ventricular fibrillation) with consequent absence of the heart beat leading to oxygen lack and eventually to death
atactic abasia
abasia due to ataxia of the legs
inability to coordinate voluntary muscle movements; unsteady movements and staggering gait
collapse of an expanded lung (especially in infants); also failure of pulmonary alveoli to expand at birth
a form of infantilism characterized by physical underdevelopment but normal intelligence
the formation of atheromas on the walls of the arteries as in atherosclerosis
a stage of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls, thus narrowing the arteries
a continuous succession of slow, writhing, involuntary movements of the hands and feet and other body parts
atopic dermatitis
a severe form of dermatitis characterized by atopy
absence or loss of topognosia; inability to locate correctly a point of touch
an abnormal condition in which a normal opening or tube in the body (as the urethra) is closed or absent
atrial fibrillation
fibrillation of the muscles of the atria of the heart
atrial septal defect
an abnormal opening between the left and right atria of the heart
atrophic arthritis
a chronic autoimmune disease with inflammation of the joints and marked deformities; something (possibly a virus) triggers an attack on the synovium by the immune system, which releases cytokines that stimulate an inflammatory reaction that can lead to the destruction of all components of the joint
atypical pneumonia
an acute respiratory disease marked by high fever and coughing; caused by mycoplasma; primarily affecting children and young adults
any state that is not typical
auditory agnosia
inability to recognize or understand the meaning of spoken words
auditory hyperesthesia
abnormal acuteness of hearing due to increased irritability of the sensory neural mechanism; characterized by intolerance for ordinary sound levels
autoimmune disease
any of a large group of diseases characterized by abnormal functioning of the immune system that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against your own tissues
production of antibodies against the tissues of your own body; produces autoimmune disease or hypersensitivity reactions
a morbid fear of being dirty
autosomal dominant disease
a disease caused by a dominant mutant gene on an autosome
autosomal recessive defect
a disease caused by the presence of two recessive mutant genes on an autosome
any of several diseases caused by deficiency of one or more vitamins
accumulation in the blood of nitrogenous waste products (urea) that are usually excreted in the urine
excess of urea in the urine
absence of an enzyme
bacillary dysentery
an acute infection of the intestine by shigella bacteria; characterized by diarrhea and fever and abdominal pains
bacillary white diarrhea
a serious bacterial disease of young chickens
transient presence of bacteria (or other microorganisms) in the blood
baker's eczema
allergic eczema caused by flour or other ingredients handled by bakers
bandy leg
a leg bowed outward at the knee (or below the knee)
bandy legs
outward curvature of the legs
Bang's disease
an infectious disease of domestic animals often resulting in spontaneous abortion; transmittable to human beings
Banti's syndrome
a disease characterized by congestion and enlargement of the spleen; accompanied by anemia or cirrhosis
the state (usually of a woman) of having no children or being unable to have children
battle fatigue
a mental disorder caused by stress of active warfare
bean blight
a blight of bean plants
Becker muscular dystrophy
a form of muscular dystrophy that sets in in adolescence or adulthood and progresses slowly but will affect all voluntary muscles; characterized by generalized weakness and muscle wasting that affects limb and trunk muscles first; similar to Duchenne's muscular dystrophy but less severe; inheritance is X-linked recessive (carried by females but affecting only males)
a chronic ulcer of the skin caused by prolonged pressure on it (as in bedridden patients)
bee sting
a sting inflicted by a bee
beet blight
a disease of beet plants
benign tumor
a tumor that is not cancerous
avitaminosis caused by lack of thiamine (vitamin B1)
any of various diseases of animals characterized by edema of the head and neck
an infestation with or a resulting infection caused by a parasite of the genus Schistosoma; common in the tropics and Far East; symptoms depend on the part of the body infected
gastric distress caused by a disorder of the liver or gall bladder
binge-eating syndrome
a disorder of eating seen among young women who go on eating binges and then feel guilt and depression and self-condemnation
binge-purge syndrome
a disorder of eating in which the person alternates between strong craving for food and aversion to food; characterized by excessive eating followed by periods of fasting or self-induced vomiting
bipolar disorder
a mental disorder characterized by episodes of mania and depression
birth defect
a defect that is present at birth
birth trauma
physical injury to an infant during the birth process
a wound resulting from biting by an animal or a person
a painful wound caused by the thrust of an insect's stinger into skin
black disease
a disease of the liver (especially in sheep and cattle) caused by liver flukes and their by-products
black eye
a swollen bruise caused by a blow to the eye
black knot
disease of plum and cherry trees characterized by black excrescences on the branches
Black Plague
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
black rot
a fungous disease causing darkening and decay of the leaves of fruits and vegetables
black spot
any of several fungous diseases of plants that produce small black spots on the plant
black vomit
caused by a flavivirus transmitted by a mosquito
any of various diseases in which the central tissues blacken
any of several human or animal diseases characterized by dark urine resulting from rapid breakdown of red blood cells
blackwater fever
severe and often fatal malaria characterized by kidney damage resulting in dark urine
bladder disorder
a disorder of the urinary bladder
an inflammatory swelling or sore
blast trauma
injury caused the explosion of a bomb (especially in enclosed spaces)
a tumor composed of immature undifferentiated cells
bleeder's disease
congenital tendency to uncontrolled bleeding; usually affects males and is transmitted from mother to son
the flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessel
any plant disease resulting in withering without rotting
blight canker
a phase of fire blight in which cankers appear
blind staggers
a disease of the central nervous system affecting especially horses and cattle; characterized by an unsteady swaying gait and frequent falling
the state of being blind or lacking sight
blister blight
a disease of tea plants
blister blight
a disease of Scotch pines
blister rust
any of several diseases of pines caused by rust fungi of the genus Cronartium and marked by destructive invasion of bark and sapwood and producing blisters externally
block anaesthesia
anesthesia of an area supplied by a nerve; produced by an anesthetic agent applied to the nerve
the physical condition of blocking or filling a passage with an obstruction
blood cyst
a cyst containing blood
blood disease
a disease or disorder of the blood
blood dyscrasia
any abnormal condition of the blood
blood extravasation
the leakage of blood from a vessel into tissues surrounding it; can occur in injuries or burns or allergic reactions
blood poisoning
invasion of the bloodstream by virulent microorganisms from a focus of infection
blood spavin
spavin caused by distension of the veins
the state of being bloody
a rosy color (especially in the cheeks) taken as a sign of good health
rare form of dichromacy characterized by a lowered sensitivity to blue light resulting in an inability to distinguish blue and yellow
a viral disease of sheep and cattle that is transmitted by biting midges
blunt trauma
injury incurred when the human body hits or is hit by a large outside object (as a car)
bog spavin
spavin caused by collection of fluids
a painful sore with a hard core filled with pus
bone spavin
spavin caused by a bony growth
Bornholm disease
an acute infectious disease occurring in epidemic form and featuring paroxysms of pain (usually in the chest)
bottom rot
fungous disease of lettuce that first rots lower leaves and spreads upward
food poisoning from ingesting botulin; not infectious; affects the CNS; can be fatal if not treated promptly
enlarged prostate; appears to be part of the natural aging process
abnormal shortness of fingers and toes
abnormally slow heartbeat
brain damage
injury to the brain that impairs its functions (especially permanently); can be caused by trauma to the head, infection, hemorrhage, inadequate oxygen, genetic abnormality, etc.
brain disease
any disorder or disease of the brain
brain fever
meningitis caused by bacteria and often fatal
brain tumor
a tumor in the brain
branched chain ketoaciduria
an inherited disorder of metabolism in which the urine has a odor characteristic of maple syrup; if untreated it can lead to mental retardation and death in early childhood
brandy nose
enlargement of the nose with dilation of follicles and redness and prominent vascularity of the skin; often associated with excessive consumption of alcohol
breaking of hard tissue such as bone
breakbone fever
an infectious disease of the tropics transmitted by mosquitoes and characterized by rash and aching head and joints
a mental or physical breakdown
breast cancer
cancer of the breast; one of the most common malignancies in women in the US
Bright's disease
an inflammation of the kidney
Broca's aphasia
aphasia in which expression by speech or writing is severely impaired
broken wind
a chronic emphysema of the horse that causes difficult expiration and heaving of the flanks
bronchial pneumonia
pneumonia characterized by acute inflammation of the walls of the bronchioles
inflammation of the membranes lining the bronchioles
inflammation of the membranes lining the bronchial tubes
bronzed diabetes
pathology in which iron accumulates in the tissues; characterized by bronzed skin and enlarged liver and diabetes mellitus and abnormalities of the pancreas and the joints
brow ptosis
sagging eyebrows
brown rot
any of certain fungous diseases of plants characterized by browning and decay of tissues
brown rot gummosis
disease of citrus trees caused by the fungus Phytophthora citrophthora
an injury that doesn't break the skin but results in some discoloration
a fatal disease of cattle that affects the central nervous system; causes staggering and agitation
bubble gum dermatitis
an allergic contact dermatitis developed around the lips of children who chew bubble gum
bubonic plague
the most common form of the plague in humans; characterized by chills, prostration, delirium and the formation of buboes in the armpits and groin; does not spread from person to person
pathologically insatiable hunger (especially when caused by brain lesions)
bull nose
a disease of pigs resulting in swelling of the snout
a lump on the body caused by a blow
disease of wheat characterized by replacement of the grains with greasy masses of smelly smut spores
an injury caused by exposure to heat or chemicals or radiation
a browning of the skin resulting from exposure to the rays of the sun
any general reduction in vitality and strength of body and mind resulting from a debilitating chronic disease
inability to produce hybrids that are both viable and fertile
caffein addiction
an addiction to caffein
caffeine intoxication
poisoning resulting from excessive intake of caffeine containing products
a viral disease of camels closely related to smallpox
cancer of the blood
malignant neoplasm of blood-forming tissues; characterized by abnormal proliferation of leukocytes; one of the four major types of cancer
cancer of the liver
malignant neoplastic disease of the liver usually occurring as a metastasis from another cancer; symptoms include loss of appetite and weakness and bloating and jaundice and upper abdominal discomfort
any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream
the most common form of skin cancer
cane blight
a disease affecting the canes of various bush fruits (e.g., raspberries or currants)
canicola fever
an acute feverish disease in people and in dogs marked by gastroenteritis and mild jaundice
canine chorea
chorea in dogs
canine distemper
a viral disease of young dogs characterized by high fever and respiratory inflammation
a fungal disease of woody plants that causes localized damage to the bark
an ulceration (especially of the lips or lining of the mouth)
cantering rhythm
cardiac rhythm characterized by the presence of an extra sound; can indicate a heart abnormality
capillary fracture
a fracture without separation of the fragments and the line of the break being very thin
car sickness
motion sickness experienced while traveling in a car
carbon dioxide acidosis
acidosis resulting from reduced gas exchange in the lungs (as in emphysema or pneumonia); excess carbon dioxide combines with water to form carbonic acid which increases the acidity of the blood
carbon monoxide poisoning
a toxic condition that results from inhaling and absorbing carbon monoxide gas
an infection larger than a boil and with several openings for discharge of pus
a small tumor (benign or malignant) arising from the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract; usually associated with excessive secretion of serotonin
any malignant tumor derived from epithelial tissue; one of the four major types of cancer
carcinoma in situ
a cluster of malignant cells that has not yet invaded the deeper epithelial tissue or spread to other parts of the body
a malignant neoplasm composed of carcinoma and sarcoma extensively intermixed
cardiac tamponade
mechanical compression of the heart resulting from large amounts of fluid collecting in the pericardial space and limiting the heart's normal range of motion
cardiogenic shock
shock caused by cardiac arrest
a disorder (usually of unknown origin) of the heart muscle (myocardium)
a disease of the heart
cardiovascular disease
a disease of the heart or blood vessels
excess carotene in the blood stream; can cause the skin to turn a pale yellow or red color
carpal tunnel syndrome
a painful disorder caused by compression of a nerve in the carpal tunnel; characterized by discomfort and weakness in the hands and fingers and by sensations of tingling, burning or numbness
abnormal formation of cartilage from other tissues; observed in some Asians
cat scratch disease
a disease thought to be transmitted to humans by a scratch from a cat
a trancelike state with loss of voluntary motion and failure to react to stimuli
a speech disorder in which the same word is repeated several times in succession
an eye disease that involves the clouding or opacification of the natural lens of the eye
catarrhal fever
any of several disease of livestock marked by fever and edema of the respiratory tract
catastrophic illness
severe illness requiring prolonged hospitalization or recovery; usually involves high costs for hospitals and doctors and medicines
cattle plague
an acute infectious viral disease of cattle (usually fatal); characterized by fever and diarrhea and inflammation of mucous membranes
caudal anaesthesia
regional anesthesia resulting from injection of an anesthetic into the caudal end of the spinal canal; now largely replaced by epidural anesthesia
celery blight
a fungous leaf spot disease of the celery plant
celiac disease
a disorder in children and adults; inability to tolerate wheat protein (gluten); symptoms include foul-smelling diarrhea and emaciation; often accompanied by lactose intolerance
an abdominal tumor
the state of having cells
central scotoma
a scotoma that involves the fixation point
a collection of blood under the scalp of a newborn; caused by pressure during birth
cerebral aneurysm
an aneurysm of the carotid artery
cerebral hemorrhage
bleeding from a ruptured blood vessel in the brain
cerebral palsy
a loss or deficiency of motor control with involuntary spasms caused by permanent brain damage present at birth
inflammation of the brain and spinal cord and their meninges
cervicofacial actinomycosis
the commonest and least severe form of actinomycosis; affects the face and neck regions
the most common hereditary disease; the child's lungs and intestines and pancreas become clogged with thick mucus; caused by defect in a single gene; no cure is known
a small hard painless nodule at the site of entry of a pathogen (as syphilis)
infectious venereal ulcer
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
a form of neuropathy that can begin between childhood and young adulthood; characterized by weakness and atrophy of the muscles of the hands and lower legs; progression is slow and individuals affected can have a normal life span; inheritance is X-linked recessive or X-linked dominant
a congenital cleft in the middle of the upper lip
a disorder of the lips marked by scaling and fissures at the corners of the mouth; caused by a deficiency of riboflavin
chemical diabetes
a mild form of diabetes mellitus in which there are no overt symptoms but there are abnormal responses to some diagnostic procedures
chestnut blight
a disease of American chestnut trees
the circulating life energy that in Chinese philosophy is thought to be inherent in all things; in traditional Chinese medicine the balance of negative and positive forms in the body is believed to be essential for good health
chicken breast
abnormal protrusion of the breastbone caused by rickets
an acute contagious disease caused by herpes varicella zoster virus; causes a rash of vesicles on the face and body
inflammation of the hands and feet caused by exposure to cold and moisture
childbed fever
serious form of septicemia contracted by a woman during childbirth or abortion (usually attributable to unsanitary conditions); formerly widespread but now uncommon
a sexually transmitted infection caused by bacteria of the genus Chlamydia
iron deficiency anemia in young women; characterized by weakness and menstrual disturbances and a green color to the skin
a condition caused by blocking the airways to the lungs (as with food or swelling of the larynx)
the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder
cholera infantum
often fatal form of gastroenteritis occurring in children; not true cholera but having similar symptoms
cholera morbus
severe gastroenteritis of unknown etiology; characterized by severe colic and vomiting and diarrhea
cholesterosis cutis
widespread xanthomas (especially on elbows and knees); often associated with a disorder of lipid metabolism
a common benign tumor of cartilage cells
a malignant neoplasm of cartilage cells
any of several degenerative nervous disorders characterized by spasmodic movements of the body and limbs
choreic abasia
abasia related to abnormal movements of the legs
a cerebral meningitis with cellular infiltration of the meninges
Christmas disease
a clotting disorder similar to hemophilia A but caused by a congenital deficiency of factor IX
chromosomal aberration
any change in the normal structure or number of chromosomes; often results in physical or mental abnormalities
chronic bronchitis
a form of bronchitis characterized by excess production of sputum leading to a chronic cough and obstruction of air flow
chronic eczema
eczema characterized by thickening of the skin with accentuated skin lines
chronic glaucoma
glaucoma caused by blockage of the canal of Schlemm; produces gradual loss of peripheral vision
chronic kidney failure
renal failure that can result from a variety of systemic disorders
chronic leukemia
slowly progressing leukemia
chronic lymphocytic leukemia
chronic leukemia characterized by lymphoblast-like cells; more common in older men
chronic myelocytic leukemia
chronic leukemia characterized by granular leukocytes; more common in older people
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
a nonreversible lung disease that is a combination of emphysema and chronic bronchitis; usually patients have been heavy cigarette smokers
chronic pyelonephritis
pyelonephritis that develops slowly and can lead to renal failure if untreated; often associated with a kidney stone or with narrowing of the urinary passageways
chronic wasting disease
a wildlife disease (akin to bovine spongiform encephalitis) that affects deer and elk
swelling of the scrotum resulting from chronic lymphatic obstruction
circulatory failure
failure of the cardiovascular system to supply adequate amounts of blood to body tissues
a chronic disease interfering with the normal functioning of the liver; the major cause is chronic alcoholism
a common venereal disease caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae; symptoms are painful urination and pain around the urethra
classic hemochromatosis
inherited form of hemochromatosis
disability of walking due to crippling of the legs or feet
a morbid fear of being closed in a confined space
a deformity of the foot characterized by an abnormally high arch and hyperextension of the toes which gives the foot the appearance of a claw
cleft foot
a deformity in which the space between the third and fourth toes extends up into the foot
cleft palate
a congenital fissure of the hard palate
clinical depression
a state of depression and anhedonia so severe as to require clinical intervention
a congenital defect in which the top of the head is depressed (concave instead of convex)
a congenital defect in which one or more toes or fingers are abnormally positioned
closed fracture
an uncomplicated fracture in which the broken bones to not pierce the skin
clostridial myonecrosis
(pathology) a deadly form of gangrene usually caused by clostridium bacteria that produce toxins that cause tissue death; can be used as a bioweapon
congenital deformity of the foot usually marked by a curled shape or twisted position of the ankle and heel and toes
cocaine addiction
an addiction to cocaine
coffee blight
a blight affecting the coffee plant
cold gangrene
(pathology) gangrene that develops in the presence of arterial obstruction and is characterized by dryness of the dead tissue and a dark brown color
cold sore
caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)
cold sweat
the physical condition of concurrent perspiration and chill; associated with fear
a mild viral infection involving the nose and respiratory passages (but not the lungs)
an abrupt failure of function or complete physical exhaustion
collar blight
a disease affecting the trunks of pear and apple trees
colon cancer
a malignant tumor of the colon; early symptom is bloody stools
color blindness
genetic inability to distinguish differences in hue
hernia projecting into the vagina
hernia in which the urinary bladder protrudes through the wall of the vagina; sometimes occurs after childbirth
a condition in which the vagina is unusually dry
comminuted fracture
fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed
common wart
a benign growth (often with a rough surface)
communicable disease
a disease that can be communicated from one person to another
complete fracture
break involving the entire width of the bone
any disease or disorder that occurs during the course of (or because of) another disease
compound fracture
bone fracture associated with lacerated soft tissue or an open wound
compression fracture
fracture in which the bone collapses (especially in short bones such as vertebrae)
an illness, disease, or other medical problem
the state of (good) health (especially in the phrases `in condition' or `in shape' or `out of condition' or `out of shape')
conduction deafness
hearing loss due to problems with the bones of the middle ear
condyloma acuminatum
a small benign wart on or around the genitals and anus
congenital afibrinogenemia
a rare congenital disorder of blood coagulation in which no fibrinogen is found in the blood plasma
congenital disease
a disease or disorder that is inherited genetically
congenital heart defect
a birth defect involving the heart
congestive heart failure
inability to pump enough blood to avoid congestion in the tissues
involving the lungs with progressive wasting of the body
contact dermatitis
a delayed type of allergic reaction of the skin resulting from skin contact with a specific allergen (such as poison ivy)
any disease easily transmitted by contact
convergent strabismus
strabismus in which one or both eyes turn inward toward the nose
conversion disorder
a mental disorder characterized by the conversion of mental conflict into somatic forms (into paralysis or anesthesia having no apparent cause)
Cooley's anaemia
a fatal form of homozygous thalassemia (inherited from both parents) in which there is no hemoglobin; skeletal deformations; heart and spleen and liver enlarged
an uncontrollable use of obscene language; often accompanied by mental disorders
cor pulmonale
enlargement of the right ventricle of the heart due to disease of the lungs or of the pulmonary blood vessels
coronary failure
inability of the heart to pump enough blood to sustain normal bodily functions
coronary heart disease
a heart disease due to an abnormality of the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to the heart
coronary occlusion
occlusion of a coronary artery caused either by progressive atherosclerosis or by a blood clot
obstruction of blood flow in a coronary artery by a blood clot (thrombus)
cortical cataract
a cataract that affects the lens cortex
cortical epilepsy
epilepsy in which the attacks begins with an isolated disturbance of cerebral function (as a twitching of a limb or an illusory sensation or a mental disturbance)
a fatal disease of freshwater fish caused by a flagellated protozoan invading the skin
cotton ball
a fungus disease of cranberries
a viral disease of cattle causing a mild skin disease affecting the udder; formerly used to inoculate humans against smallpox
cradle cap
a dermatitis of the scalp that is common in infants
state of violent mental agitation
a disease of cattle and sheep attributed to a dietary deficiency; characterized by anemia and softening of the bones and a slow stiff gait
crescent-cell anaemia
a congenital form of anemia occurring mostly in blacks; characterized by abnormal blood cells having a crescent shape
severe hypothyroidism resulting in physical and mental stunting
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
rare (usually fatal) brain disease (usually in middle age) caused by an unidentified slow virus; characterized by progressive dementia and gradual loss of muscle control
Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever
an infection common in Arab states caused by a bunyavirus; transmitted by a tick that thrives on sheep
cross infection
an infection that is acquired at a hospital or other healthcare facility
a disease of infants and young children; harsh coughing and hoarseness and fever and difficult breathing
crown gall
a bacterial disease of plants (especially pome and stone fruits and grapes and roses) which forms excrescences on the stem near the ground
crown wart
a fungous disease of alfalfa which forms white excrescences at the base of the stem
an ill-defined bodily ailment
insensibility resulting from cold
destruction of tissue by freezing and characterized by tingling, blistering and possibly gangrene
a morbid fear of freezing
a state in which an animal's metabolic activities come to a reversible standstill
failure of one or both testes to move into the scrotum as the male fetus develops
Cupid's disease
a communicable infection transmitted by sexual intercourse or genital contact
Cushing's disease
a glandular disorder caused by excessive ACTH resulting in greater than normal functioning of the adrenal gland; characterized by obesity
Cushing's syndrome
a glandular disorder caused by excessive cortisol
a wound made by cutting
cutaneous anthrax
a form of anthrax infection that begins as papule that becomes a vesicle and breaks with a discharge of toxins; symptoms of septicemia are severe with vomiting and high fever and profuse sweating; the infection is often fatal
cyanide poisoning
poisoning due to ingesting or inhaling cyanide; common in smoke from fires and in industrial chemicals
irrational fear of computers or technology
sexual arousal involving communication on the internet
cyclic disorder
a mild bipolar disorder that persists over a long time
cyclic neutropenia
neutropenia that occurs periodically
a developmental abnormality in which there is only one eye
a morbid fear of dogs
a closed sac that develops abnormally in some body structure
cystic breast disease
the presence of one or more cysts in a breast
inflammation of the urinary bladder and ureters
cystoid macular edema
a specific pattern of swelling in the central retina
paralysis of the urinary bladder
a deficiency of some cellular element of the blood
abnormally large fingers or toes
dichromacy characterized by a lowered sensitivity to green light resulting in an inability to distinguish green and purplish-red
damping off
a plant disease caused by a fungus; diseased condition of seedlings in excessive moisture
a condition in which white scales of dead skin are shed by the scalp
Darier's disease
a rare hereditary condition marked by dark crusted patches (sometimes containing pus)
day blindness
inability to see clearly in bright light
congenital deafness that results in inability to speak
partial or complete loss of hearing
the state of being weak in health or body (especially from old age)
deer fly fever
a highly infectious disease of rodents (especially rabbits and squirrels) and sometimes transmitted to humans by ticks or flies or by handling infected animals
defect of speech
a disorder of oral speech
deficiency disease
any disease caused by a lack of an essential nutrient (as a vitamin or mineral)
a twist or aberration; especially a perverse or abnormal way of judging or acting
an affliction in which some part of the body is misshapen or malformed
degenerative arthritis
chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints; the most common form of arthritis occurring usually after middle age
degenerative disorder
condition leading to progressive loss of function
depletion of bodily fluids
a usually brief state of excitement and mental confusion often accompanied by hallucinations
delta hepatitis
a severe form of hepatitis
delusional disorder
any mental disorder in which delusions play a significant role
abnormal loss of mineral salts (especially from bone)
loss of the myelin covering of some nerve fibers resulting in their impaired function
emotional dissociative disorder in which there is loss of contact with your own personal reality accompanied by feelings of unreality and strangeness
depressed fracture
fracture of the skull where the bone is pushed in
inflammation of the skin; skin becomes itchy and may develop blisters
an autoimmune disease that affects the blood vessels and connective tissue; fibrous connective tissue is deposited in the skin
disorder involving lesions or eruptions of the skin (in which there is usually no inflammation)
dermoid cyst
a cystic tumor (usually benign) with a wall lined with epithelium and a cavity containing other material
descensus uteri
prolapse of the uterus
the slipping or falling out of place of an organ (as the uterus)
something that is desired
detached retina
visual impairment resulting from the retina becoming separated from the choroid in the back of the eye; treated by photocoagulation
deviated nasal septum
abnormal shift in location of the nasal septum; a common condition causing obstruction of the nasal passages and difficulty in breathing and recurrent nosebleeds
deviated septum
abnormal displacement of any wall that separates two chambers (usually in the nasal cavity)
abnormal condition where the heart is located toward the right side of the chest
a polygenic disease characterized by abnormally high glucose levels in the blood; any of several metabolic disorders marked by excessive urination and persistent thirst
diabetes insipidus
a rare form of diabetes resulting from a deficiency of vasopressin (the pituitary hormone that regulates the kidneys); characterized by the chronic excretion of large amounts of pale dilute urine which results in dehydration and extreme thirst
diabetic acidosis
acidosis with an accumulation of ketone bodies; occurs primarily in diabetes mellitus
diabetic retinopathy
retinopathy involving damage to the small blood vessels in the retina; results from chronically high blood glucose levels in people with poorly controlled diabetes
diaper dermatitis
dermatitis of the thighs and buttocks of infants; supposedly caused by ammonia in the urine in the child's diapers
diaphragmatic hernia
hernia resulting from the protrusion of part of the stomach through the diaphragm
separation of an epiphysis from the long bone to which it is normally attached without fracture of the bone
a deficiency of color vision in which the person can match any given hue by mixing only two other wavelengths of light (as opposed to the three wavelengths needed by people with normal color vision)
a disease of plants characterized by the gradual dying of the young shoots starting at the tips and progressing to the larger branches
(of animals having several estrous cycles in one breeding season) a state or interval of sexual inactivity or quiescence between periods of activity
the state of being stretched beyond normal dimensions
acute contagious infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae; marked by the formation of a false membrane in the throat and other air passages causing difficulty in breathing
paralysis of corresponding parts on both sides of the body
visual impairment in which an object is seen as two objects
disability of walking
a disability that interferes with or prevents walking
the condition of being unable to perform as a consequence of physical or mental unfitness
an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning
disease of the neuromuscular junction
a disease characterized by impairment of neuromuscular junctions
disease of the skin
a disease affecting the skin
(medicine) any disturbance in the functioning of an organ or body part or a disturbance in the functioning of a social group
a loss (or serious disruption) of organization in some system
a displacement of a part (especially a bone) from its normal position (as in the shoulder or the vertebral column)
a physical condition in which there is a disturbance of normal functioning
displaced fracture
fracture in which the two ends of the broken bone are separated from one another
dissociative disorder
dissociation so severe that the usually integrated functions of consciousness and perception of self break down
distal muscular dystrophy
a form of muscular dystrophy that sets in between 40 and 60 years of age and is characterized by weakness and wasting of the muscles of the hands and forearms and lower legs; inheritance is autosomal dominant
any of various infectious viral diseases of animals
distributive shock
shock caused by poor distribution of the blood flow
(psychiatry) a psychological disorder of thought or emotion; a more neutral term than mental illness
divergent strabismus
strabismus in which one or both eyes are directed outward
presence of multiple diverticula in the walls of the colon
a herniation through the muscular wall of a tubular organ (especially the colon)
a chronic skin disease occurring primarily in women between the ages of 20 and 40; characterized by an eruption of red lesions over the cheeks and bridge of the nose
diabetes caused by a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin and characterized by polyuria
dog bite
a bite inflicted by a dog
double pneumonia
lobar pneumonia involving both lungs
dowager's hump
abnormal spinal curvature that results when osteoporosis causes the spine to collapse; seen most often in elderly women
Down's syndrome
a congenital disorder caused by having an extra 21st chromosome; results in a flat face and short stature and mental retardation
a physiological state corresponding to a strong need or desire
drug addiction
an addiction to a drug (especially a narcotic drug)
(plural) an eye disease resulting from small accumulations of hyaline bodies underneath the retina
dry rot
a crumbling and drying of timber or bulbs or potatoes or fruit caused by a fungus
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
the most common form of muscular dystrophy; inheritance is X-linked recessive (carried by females but affecting only males)
duodenal ulcer
a peptic ulcer of the duodenum
Dutch elm disease
disease of elms caused by a fungus
a genetic abnormality resulting in short stature
a disorder in the sense of touch
impaired articulatory ability resulting from defects in the peripheral motor nerves or in the speech musculature
impaired ability to learn grade-appropriate mathematics
an abnormal or physiologically unbalanced state of the body
an infection of the intestines marked by severe diarrhea
infertility between hybrids
impaired ability to learn to write
abnormality in performing voluntary muscle movements
impaired ability to learn to read
impaired ability to express ideas verbally; usually resulting from difficulties of reasoning (as in feeblemindedness or certain psychoses)
impairment of the sense of smell
a disorder in the sense of smell
condition in which swallowing is difficult or painful
an impairment of language (especially speech production) that is usually due to brain damage
speech disorder attributable to a disorder of phonation
abnormal development (of organs or cells) or an abnormal structure resulting from such growth
mild chronic depression
any degenerative disorder resulting from inadequate or faulty nutrition
any of several hereditary diseases of the muscular system characterized by weakness and wasting of skeletal muscles
painful or difficult urination
eating disorder
a disorder of the normal eating routine
Ebola hemorrhagic fever
a severe and often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys and chimpanzees) caused by the Ebola virus; characterized by high fever and severe internal bleeding; can be spread from person to person; is largely limited to Africa
the purple or black-and-blue area resulting from a bruise
pregnancy resulting from gestation elsewhere than in the uterus
a toxic condition characterized by convulsions and possibly coma during or immediately after pregnancy
dilatation or distension of a hollow organ
congenital abnormality involving the absence of some fingers or toes
generic term for inflammatory conditions of the skin; particularly with vesiculation in the acute stages
eczema herpeticum
eczema characterized by a feverish condition and widespread eruption of vesicles; most common in children
impotence resulting from a man's inability to have or maintain an erection of his penis
excessive desire to eat
breakdown of elastic tissue (as the loss of elasticity in the skin of elderly people that results from degeneration of connective tissue)
electric burn
a burn caused by heat produced by an electric current
electric shock
trauma caused by the passage of electric current through the body (as from contact with high voltage lines or being struck by lightning); usually involves burns and abnormal heart rhythm and unconsciousness
hypertrophy of certain body parts (usually legs and scrotum); the end state of the disease filariasis
elephantiasis neuromatosa
hypertrophy of a limb
embryonal carcinoma
malignant neoplasm of the testis
embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma
form of rhabdomyosarcoma occurring mainly in infants and children
(ophthalmology) the normal refractive condition of the eye in which there is clear focus of light on the retina
emotional arousal
the arousal of strong emotions and emotional behavior
an abnormal condition of the lungs marked by decreased respiratory function; associated with smoking or chronic bronchitis or old age
having an empty stomach
a collection of pus in a body cavity (especially in the lung cavity)
protrusion of brain tissue through a congenital fissure in the skull
benign slow-growing tumor of cartilaginous cells at the ends of tubular bones (especially in the hands and feet)
involuntary defecation not attributable to physical defects or illness
endemic typhus
acute infection caused by rickettsia and transmitted by the bite of an infected flea; characterized by fever and chills and muscle aches and a rash
a disease that is constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in people of a certain class or in people living in a particular location
endogenous depression
a state of depression for which there is no apparent precipitating cause
endometrial cancer
cancer of the uterine lining
a healthy capacity for vigorous activity
an inflammatory complication of leprosy that results in painful skin lesions on the arms and legs and face
enteric fever
serious infection marked by intestinal inflammation and ulceration; caused by Salmonella typhosa ingested with food or water
an infestation with or a resulting infection caused by the pinworm Enterobius vermicularis; occurs especially in children
the presence of calculi in the intestines
a disease of the intestinal tract
an abnormally downward position of the intestines in the abdominal cavity
abnormal narrowing of the intestine
a disease of cattle and sheep that is attributed to toxins absorbed from the intestines
a morbid fear of insects
entopic pregnancy
pregnancy resulting from normal gestation in the uterus
epidemic disease
any infectious disease that develops and spreads rapidly to many people
epidemic hysertia
a condition in which a large group of people exhibit the same state of violent mental agitation
epidemic parotitis
an acute contagious viral disease characterized by fever and by swelling of the parotid glands
regional anesthesia resulting from injection of an anesthetic into the epidural space of the spinal cord; sensation is lost in the abdominal and genital and pelvic areas; used in childbirth and gynecological surgery
epilepsia major
epilepsy in which the attacks involve loss of consciousness and tonic spasms of the musculature followed by generalized jerking
epilepsia minor
epilepsy characterized by paroxysmal attacks of brief clouding of consciousness (and possibly other abnormalities)
a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by loss of consciousness and convulsions
a congenital abnormality in males in which the urethra is on the upper surface of the penis
bleeding from the nose
a malignant tumor of the epithelial tissue
equine distemper
an acute bacterial disease of horses characterized by inflammation of the mucous membranes
Erb-Duchenne paralysis
paralysis of the arm resulting from injury to the brachial plexus (usually during childbirth)
an erect penis
an abnormally high degree of irritability or sensitivity to stimulation of an organ or body part
a plant disease caused by the ergot fungus
poisoning by ingestion of ergot-infected grain products; characterized by thirst and diarrhea and nausea and cramping and vomiting and abnormal cardiac rhythms; in severe cases it can cause seizures and gangrene of the limbs
a state of anticipation of sexuality
an acute streptococcal infection characterized by deep-red inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes
abnormal redness of the skin resulting from dilation of blood vessels (as in sunburn or inflammation)
erythema multiforme
a red rash caused by hypersensitivity to a drug or disease or other allergen
erythema nodosum
skin condition characterized by tender red nodules on the shins and legs
erythema solare
redness of the skin caused by exposure to the rays of the sun
a blood disease characterized by the abnormal presence of erythroblasts in the blood
erythroblastosis fetalis
severe anemia in newborn babies; the result of Rh incompatibility between maternal and fetal blood; typically occurs when the child of an Rh-negative mother inherits Rh-positive blood from the father; can be diagnosed before birth by amniocentesis
any skin disorder involving abnormal redness
esophageal reflux
reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus
essential hypertension
persistent and pathological high blood pressure for which no specific cause can be found
essential thrombocytopenia
the primary form of thrombocytopenia (rather than a shortage of platelets caused by other conditions such as tuberculosis or chemical suppression of bone marrow etc.)
applies to nonhuman mammals: a state or period of heightened sexual arousal and activity
the state of being a eunuch (either because of lacking testicles or because they failed to develop)
protrusion of the intestine through the abdominal wall
Ewing's sarcoma
malignant tumor in bone marrow (usually in the pelvis or in long bones)
exanthema subitum
a viral disease of infants and young children; characterized by abrupt high fever and mild sore throat; a few days later there is a faint pinkish rash that lasts for a few hours to a few days
the state of being emotionally aroused and worked up
the neural or electrical arousal of an organ or muscle or gland
(pathology) an abnormal outgrowth or enlargement of some part of the body
exogenous depression
an inappropriate state of depression that is precipitated by events in the person's life (to be distinguished from normal grief)
an umbilical hernia at birth in which some abdominal organs push into the umbilical cord
a benign outgrowth from a bone (usually covered with cartilage)
eye disease
any disease of the eye
eye infection
an infection of the sebaceous gland of the eyelid
blindness due to loss of the eyes
loss of ability to function normally
false pregnancy
physiological state in which a woman exhibits symptoms of pregnancy but is not pregnant
false smut
disease of rice; grains covered by a green powder consisting of conidia
familial hypercholesterolemia
congenital disorder characterized by high levels of cholesterol and early development of atherosclerosis
a state of extreme hunger resulting from lack of essential nutrients over a prolonged period
Fanconi's anaemia
a rare congenital anemia characterized by pancytopenia and hypoplasia of the bone marrow
an ill-defined state of irritability and distress
abnormal condition in which vision for distant objects is better than for near objects
a reduced ability to focus on near objects caused by loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens after age 45
fatigue fracture
fracture resulting from excessive activity rather than a specific injury
fatty liver
yellow discoloration as a result of the accumulation of certain fats (triglycerides) in the liver; can be caused by alcoholic cirrhosis or pregnancy or exposure to certain toxins
anemia resulting from eating fava beans; victims have an inherited blood abnormality and enzyme deficiency
the state of being fertile; capable of producing offspring
a purulent infection at the end of a finger or toe in the area surrounding the nail
a sore that has become inflamed and formed pus
fetal distress
an abnormal condition of a fetus; usually discovered during pregnancy and characterized by an abnormal heart rhythm
a state of fitness and good health
fever pitch
a state of extreme excitement
benign and movable and firm and not tender tumor of the breast; common in young women and caused by high levels of estrogen
benign tumor containing fibrous tissue (especially in the uterus)
nonmalignant tumor of connective tissue
development of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ
fibrous dysplasia of bone
a disturbance in which bone that is undergoing lysis is replaced by an abnormal proliferation of fibrous tissue resulting in bone lesions or skin lesions
figural blindness
inability to see shapes and contours
a disease caused by nematodes in the blood or tissues of the body causing blockage of lymphatic vessels
fire blight
a disease blackening the leaves of pear and apple trees
first-degree burn
burn causing redness of the skin surface
a chronic inflammation of the withers of a horse
good physical condition; being in shape or in condition
flaccid bladder
a urinary bladder disorder resulting from interruption of the reflex arc normally associated with voiding urine; absence of bladder sensation and over-filling of the bladder and inability to urinate voluntarily
flaccid paralysis
weakness or loss of muscle tone resulting from injury or disease of the nerves innervating the muscles
flag smut
smut affecting leaves and stems of cereals and other grasses
reddening of the skin spreading outward from a focus of infection or irritation
a state of excessive gas in the alimentary canal
flea bite
sting inflicted by a flea
the state of being flexed (as of a joint)
flittering scotoma
a localized area of diminished vision edged by shimmering colored lights; in many people it indicates the onset of migraine
an acute febrile highly contagious viral disease
a pathological condition resulting from an excessive intake of fluorine (usually from drinking water)
abnormally rapid beating of the auricles of the heart (especially in a regular rhythm); can result in heart block
excessive discharge of liquid from a cavity or organ (as in watery diarrhea)
focal infection
bacterial infection limited to a specific organ or region especially one causing symptoms elsewhere
folie a deux
the simultaneous occurrence of symptoms of a mental disorder (as delusions) in two persons who are closely related (as siblings or man and wife)
food poisoning
illness caused by poisonous or contaminated food
foot rot
plant disease in which the stem or trunk rots at the base
foot rot
contagious degenerative infection of the feet of hoofed animals (especially cattle and sheep)
foot-and-mouth disease
acute contagious disease of cloven-footed animals marked by ulcers in the mouth and around the hoofs
fowl cholera
an acute diarrheal disease (especially of chickens) caused by the microorganism that causes hemorrhagic septicemia
fowl pest
either of two acute viral diseases of domestic fowl; characterized by refusal to eat and high temperature and discoloration of the comb
an infectious tropical disease resembling syphilis in its early stages; marked by red skin eruptions and ulcerating lesions
an alert and refreshed state
Friedreich's ataxia
sclerosis of the posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord; characterized by muscular weakness and abnormal gait; occurs in children
dissociative disorder in which a person forgets who they are and leaves home to create a new life; during the fugue there is no memory of the former life; after recovering there is no memory for events during the dissociative state
functional disorder
disorder showing symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified
acute skin disease characterized by the presence of many furuncles
fusarium wilt
wilt caused by fungi of the genus Fusarium
an anxiety disorder characterized by chronic free-floating anxiety and such symptoms as tension or sweating or trembling or lightheadedness or irritability etc that has lasted for more than six months
a cystic tumor containing milk or a milky substance (especially in the mammary glands)
a genetic disease (autosomal recessive) in which an enzyme needed to metabolize galactose is deficient or absent; typically develops shortly after birth
a skin sore caused by chafing
an open sore on the back of a horse caused by ill-fitting or badly adjusted saddle
a disturbance in the synthesis of immunoglobulins; proteins having antibody activity increase greatly in the blood
necrotic tissue; a mortified or gangrenous part or mass
gastric ulcer
a peptic ulcer of the stomach
inflammation of the stomach and intestines; can be caused by Salmonella enteritidis
Gaucher's disease
a rare chronic disorder of lipid metabolism of genetic origin
general anaesthesia
a state of total unconsciousness resulting from anesthetic drugs (as for a major surgical operation)
genital herpes
an infection caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) that is usually transmitted by sexual contact; marked by recurrent attacks of painful eruptions on the skin and mucous membranes of the genital area
genu valgum
an inward slant of the thigh
eating earth, clay, chalk; occurs in some primitive tribes, sometimes in cases of nutritional deficiency or obsessive behavior
German measles
a contagious viral disease that is a milder form of measles lasting three or four days; can be damaging to a fetus during the first trimester
the state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth when a woman carries a developing fetus in her uterus
excessive size; usually caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone from the pituitary gland
infection of the intestines with protozoa found in contaminated food and water; characterized by diarrhea and nausea and flatulence and abdominal discomfort
inflammation of the gums
a destructive and contagious bacterial disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans
glandular fever
an acute disease characterized by fever and swollen lymph nodes and an abnormal increase of mononuclear leucocytes or monocytes in the bloodstream; not highly contagious; some believe it can be transmitted by kissing
an eye disease that damages the optic nerve and impairs vision (sometimes progressing to blindness)
a fast-growing malignant brain tumor composed of spongioblasts; nearly always fatal
a tumor of the brain consisting of neuroglia
global aphasia
loss of all ability to communicate
nephritis marked by inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney; characterized by decreased production of urine and by the presence of blood and protein in the urine and by edema
repetitive nonmeaningful speech (especially that associated with a trance state or religious fervor)
abnormal downward or back placement of the tongue
glove anesthesia
a mental disorder involving loss of sensitivity in the hand and wrist
abnormally enlarged thyroid gland; can result from underproduction or overproduction of hormone or from a deficiency of iodine in the diet
good health
the state of being vigorous and free from bodily or mental disease
a painful inflammation of the big toe and foot caused by defects in uric acid metabolism resulting in deposits of the acid and its salts in the blood and joints
granulocytic leukemia
a malignant neoplasm of blood-forming tissues; marked by proliferation of myelocytes and their presence in the blood
a tumor composed of granulation tissue resulting from injury or inflammation or infection
granuloma inguinale
a venereal disease caused by a bacterium of the genus Calymmatobacterium; characterized by a pimply rash of the skin in the genital and groin region
granville wilt
a bacterial wilt of tobacco plants
Graves' disease
exophthalmos occurring in association with goiter; hyperthyroidism with protrusion of the eyeballs
the number of the pregnancy that a woman is in
technical terms for pregnancy
a superficial abrasion
greenstick fracture
a partial fracture of a bone (usually in children); the bone is bent but broken on only one side
(pathology) an abnormal proliferation of tissue (as in a tumor)
a boil or abscess on the gums
a small rubbery granuloma that is characteristic of an advanced stage of syphilis
pathological production of gummy exudates in citrus and various stone-fruit trees
excessive development of the breasts in males; usually the result of hormonal imbalance or treatment with certain drugs (including some antihypertensives)
a morbid fear of women
benign angioma consisting of a mass of blood vessels; some appear as birthmarks
accumulation of blood in the vagina and uterus
accumulation of menstrual blood in the vagina (usually due to an imperforate hymen)
an abnormally low number of red blood cells in the blood
a blood disease characterized by the presence of abnormal hemoglobins in the blood
haemolytic anaemia
anemia resulting from destruction of erythrocytes
haemophilia A
hemophilia caused by a congenital deficiency of factor VIII; occurs almost exclusively in men
haemorrhagic stroke
stroke caused by the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain
hairy root
a phase of crown gall (especially in apples) during which there is abnormal development of fine fibrous roots
a state of robust good health
halo blight
a blight affecting the leaves of oats and other grasses
a focal growth that resembles a neoplasm but results from faulty development in an organ
Hand-Schuller-Christian disease
inflammatory histiocytosis associated with disturbance of cholesterol metabolism; occurs chiefly in young children and is characterized by cystic defects of the skull and diabetes insipidus
Hansen's disease
chronic granulomatous communicable disease occurring in tropical and subtropical regions; characterized by inflamed nodules beneath the skin and wasting of body parts; caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae
any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc.
Hashimoto's disease
autoimmune disorder of the thyroid gland; most common in middle-aged women
Haverhill fever
the form of ratbite fever occurring in the United States
head blight
a blight of the heads of cereals
head cold
a common cold affecting the nasal passages and resulting in congestion and sneezing and headache
health problem
a state in which you are unable to function normally and without pain
hearing disorder
impairment of the sense of hearing
heart attack
a sudden severe instance of abnormal heart function
any plant disease in which the central part of a plant rots (especially in trees)
heat exhaustion
a condition marked by dizziness and nausea and weakness caused by depletion of body fluids and electrolytes
heat hyperpyrexia
collapse caused by exposure to excessive heat
mental lethargy or dullness
blindness in one half of the visual field of one or both eyes
hemianopic scotoma
a scotoma involving half of the visual field
paralysis of one side of the body
hemorrhagic septicemia
an acute infectious disease characterized by pneumonia and blood infection
inflammation of the liver caused by a virus or a toxin
hepatitis A
an acute but benign form of viral hepatitis caused by an RNA virus that does not persist in the blood serum and is usually transmitted by ingesting food or drink that is contaminated with fecal matter
hepatitis B
an acute (sometimes fatal) form of viral hepatitis caused by a DNA virus that tends to persist in the blood serum and is transmitted by sexual contact or by transfusion or by ingestion of contaminated blood or other bodily fluids
hepatitis C
a viral hepatitis clinically indistinguishable from hepatitis B but caused by a single-stranded RNA virus; usually transmitted by parenteral means (as injection of an illicit drug or blood transfusion or exposure to blood or blood products)
carcinoma of the liver
hepatojugular reflux
a venous reflux occurring in congestive heart failure
abnormal enlargement of the liver
hereditary cerebellar ataxia
nervous disorder of late childhood and early adulthood; characterized by ataxic gait and hesitating or explosive speech and nystagmus
congenital condition in which external genitalia and internal sex organs have both male and female characteristics
rupture in smooth muscle tissue through which a bodily structure protrudes
herniated disc
a painful rupture of the fibrocartilage of the disc between spinal vertebrae; occurs most often in the lumbar region
heroin addiction
an addiction to heroin
a viral infection (usually in children) marked by sore throat and fever and papules in the mouth and throat and headache and abdominal pain; usually subsides in a short time
viral diseases causing eruptions of the skin or mucous membrane
herpes simplex
an infection caused by the herpes simplex virus; affects the skin and nervous system; produces small temporary (but sometimes painful) blisters on the skin and mucous membranes
herpes zoster
eruptions along a nerve path often accompanied by severe neuralgia
any abnormal position of the organs of the body
the torpid or resting state in which some animals pass the winter
a temporary red mark on a person's skin resulting from kissing or sucking by their lover
a small inflamed elevation of the skin; a pustule or papule; common symptom in acne
high blood pressure
a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)
Hirschsprung's disease
congenital condition in which the colon does not have the normal network of nerves; there is little urge to defecate so the feces accumulate and cause megacolon
histiocytic leukaemia
leukemia characterized by the proliferation of monocytes and monoblasts in the blood
a blood disease characterized by an abnormal multiplication of macrophages
incompatibility in which one person's tissue cannot be transplanted to another person
infection by the human immunodeficiency virus
Hodgkin's disease
a malignant disorder in which there is progressive (but painless) enlargement of lymph tissue followed by enlargement of the spleen and liver
hog cholera
highly infectious virus disease of swine
an abnormal inward (forward) curvature of the vertebral column
a state of sexual arousal
an abnormal backward curve to the vertebral column
a physiological need for food; the consequence of food deprivation
Huntington's disease
hereditary disease; develops in adulthood and ends in dementia
Hurler's syndrome
hereditary disease (autosomal recessive) consisting of an error is mucopolysaccharide metabolism; characterized by severe abnormalities in development of skeletal cartilage and bone and mental retardation
hyaline membrane disease
an acute lung disease of the newborn (especially the premature newborn); lungs cannot expand because of a wetting agent is lacking; characterized by rapid shallow breathing and cyanosis and the formation of a glassy hyaline membrane over the alveoli
cyst filled with liquid; forms as a result of infestation by tapeworm larvae (as in echinococcosis)
hydatid mole
an abnormality during pregnancy; chorionic villi around the fetus degenerate and form clusters of fluid-filled sacs; usually associated with the death of the fetus
an abnormality of pregnancy; accumulation of excess amniotic fluid
blood disorder in which there is excess fluid volume compared with the cell volume of the blood
disorder in which serous fluid accumulates in a body sac (especially in the scrotum)
an abnormal condition in which cerebrospinal fluid collects in the ventricles of the brain; in infants it can cause abnormally rapid growth of the head and bulging fontanelles and a small face; in adults the symptoms are primarily neurological
accumulation of urine in the kidney because of an obstruction in the ureter
a morbid fear of water
an acute viral disease of the nervous system of warm-blooded animals (usually transmitted by the bite of a rabid animal); rabies is fatal if the virus reaches the brain
a condition characterized by excessive restlessness and movement
a genetic disorder characterized by high levels of beta-lipoproteins and cholesterol; can lead to atherosclerosis at an early age
abnormally high amounts of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood
hyperbilirubinemia of the newborn
a common disorder that is usually due to immaturity of the liver; usually subsides spontaneously
the physical condition of having the presence of an abnormally high level of carbon dioxide in the circulating blood
the state of having abnormally many cells
hyperchromic anaemia
anemia characterized by an increase in the concentration of corpuscular hemoglobin
birth defect characterized by the presence of more than the normal number of fingers or toes
a severe dermatitis of herbivorous domestic animals attributable to photosensitivity from eating Saint John's wort
any of various disorders of lipoprotein and cholesterol metabolism that result in high levels of lipoprotein and cholesterol in the circulating blood
excessive movement; especially excessive motility of the gastrointestinal tract
excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting in abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood; can affect many systems of the body (especially causing bone resorption and osteoporosis)
unusual darkening of the skin
excessive activity of the pituitary gland (especially overactivity of the anterior lobe which leads to excess secretion of growth hormone)
abnormal increase in number of cells
extremely high fever (especially in children)
an inability to stay awake
abnormally high body temperature; sometimes induced (as in treating some forms of cancer)
an overactive thyroid gland; pathologically excessive production of thyroid hormones or the condition resulting from excessive production of thyroid hormones
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
a disorder in which the heart muscle is so strong that it does not relax enough to fill with the heart with blood and so has reduced pumping ability
abnormal enlargement of a body part or organ
an abnormal condition resulting from taking vitamins excessively; can be serious for vitamins A or D or K
a blood disorder consisting of an increase in the volume of circulating blood
impairment of tactile sensitivity; decrease of sensitivity
bleeding into the interior chamber of the eye
a morbid fear of falling asleep
a hereditary disorder characterized by low levels of beta-lipoproteins and lipids and cholesterol
the state of having abnormally few cells
hypochromic anaemia
anemia characterized by a decrease in the concentration of corpuscular hemoglobin
an abnormally low concentration of gamma globulin in the blood and increased risk of infection
incompetence of the gonads (especially in the male with low testosterone); results in deficient development of secondary sex characteristics and (in prepubertal males) a body with long legs and a short trunk
any of various disorders of lipoprotein and cholesterol metabolism that result in low levels of lipoprotein and cholesterol in the circulating blood
inadequate secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting in abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood
unusual lack of skin color
underdevelopment of an organ because of a decrease in the number of cells
hypoplastic anaemia
anemia resulting from inadequately functioning bone marrow; can develop into aplastic anemia
lessened sensitivity to odors
an abnormal condition in males in which the urethra opens on the under surface of the penis
abnormally low blood pressure
subnormal body temperature
a low level of prothrombin (factor II) in the circulating blood; results in long clotting time and poor clot formation and sometimes excessive bleeding; can result from vitamin K deficiency
an underactive thyroid gland; a glandular disorder resulting from insufficient production of thyroid hormones
a blood disorder consisting of a decrease in the volume of circulating blood
hypovolemic shock
shock caused by severe blood or fluid loss
oxygen deficiency causing a very strong drive to correct the deficiency
hypoxic hypoxia
hypoxia resulting from defective oxygenation of the blood in the lungs
neurotic disorder characterized by violent emotional outbreaks and disturbances of sensory and motor functions
hysteria with cataleptic symptoms
any of several congenital diseases in which the skin is dry and scaly like a fish
idiopathic disease
any disease arising from internal dysfunctions of unknown cause
blockage of the intestine (especially the ileum) that prevents the contents of the intestine from passing to the lower bowel
impairment of normal physiological function affecting part or all of an organism
immersion foot
resembling frostbite but without freezing; resulting from exposure to cold and wet
immunological disorder in which some part of the body's immune system is inadequate and resistance to infectious diseases is reduced
immunological disorder
a disorder of the immune system
lowering the body's normal immune response to invasion by foreign substances; can be deliberate (as in lowering the immune response to prevent rejection of a transplanted organ) or incidental (as a side effect of radiotherapy or chemotherapy for cancer)
impacted fracture
fracture in which one broken end is wedged into the other broken end
impacted tooth
a disorder in which a tooth is so crowded in its socket that it cannot erupt normally
a disorder in which feces are impacted in the lower colon
a very contagious infection of the skin; common in children; localized redness develops into small blisters that gradually crust and erode
an inability (usually of the male animal) to copulate
inborn error of metabolism
any of a number of diseases in which an inherited defect (usually a missing or inadequate enzyme) results in an abnormality of metabolism
(immunology) the degree to which the body's immune system will try to reject foreign material (as transfused blood or transplanted tissue)
inability of a part or organ to function properly
incomplete fracture
fracture that does not go across the entire width of the bone
Indian tick fever
a disease (common in India and around the Mediterranean area) caused by a rickettsia that is transmitted to humans by a reddish brown tick (ixodid) that lives on dogs and other mammals
a slight illness
any pathological hardening or thickening of tissue
industrial disease
disease or disability resulting from conditions of employment (usually from long exposure to a noxious substance or from continuous repetition of certain acts)
an abnormal condition in which an older child or adult retains infantile characteristics
localized necrosis resulting from obstruction of the blood supply
the pathological state resulting from the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms
infectious disease
a disease transmitted only by a specific kind of contact
the state of being unable to produce offspring; in a woman it is an inability to conceive; in a man it is an inability to impregnate
inflammatory disease
a disease characterized by inflammation
inguinal hernia
hernia in which a loop of intestine enters the inguinal canal; the most common type of hernia in males
inhalation anesthesia
general anesthesia achieved by administration of an inhalation anesthetic
sudden prostration due to exposure to the sun or excessive heat
an inability to sleep; chronic sleeplessness
insulin reaction
hypoglycemia produced by excessive insulin in the system causing coma
intermittent claudication
lameness due to pain in leg muscles because the blood supply is inadequate; pain subsides with rest
interstitial plasma cell pneumonia
pneumonia occurring in infants or in persons with impaired immune systems (as AIDS victims)
interstitial pneumonia
chronic lung disease affecting the interstitial tissue of the lungs
the physiological state produced by a poison or other toxic substance
intracranial aneurysm
an aneurysm of a cranial artery
entry of foreign matter into a blood vessel
chronic ill health
abnormal condition in which an organ is turned inward or inside out (as when the upper part of the uterus is pulled into the cervical canal after childbirth)
involutional depression
a major depressive episode associated with the climacteric
iron deficiency anaemia
a form of anemia due to lack of iron in the diet or to iron loss as a result of chronic bleeding
(pathology) abnormal sensitivity to stimulation
local anemia in a given body part sometimes resulting from vasoconstriction or thrombosis or embolism
ischaemic stroke
the most common kind of stroke; caused by an interruption in the flow of blood to the brain (as from a clot blocking a blood vessel)
ischemic anoxia
anoxia resulting from slow peripheral circulation (such as follows congestive cardiac failure)
ischemic hypoxia
hypoxia resulting from slow peripheral circulation (such as follows congestive cardiac failure)
a contagious skin infection caused by the itch mite; characterized by persistent itching and skin irritation
Jacksonian epilepsy
focal epilepsy in which the attack usually moves from distal to proximal limb muscles on the same side of the body
energetic vitality
jungle fever
severe form of malaria occurring in tropical regions
jungle rot
skin disorder induced by a tropical climate
juvenile wart
a small benign growth on the faces of hands of children
kakke disease
the endemic form of beriberi
kala azar
sores resulting from a tropical infection by protozoa of the genus Leishmania which are spread by sandflies
Kallman's syndrome
hypogonadism with anosmia; a congenital sexual disorder that prevents the testicles from maturing at puberty
Kaposi's sarcoma
a sarcoma that starts with purplish spots on the feet and legs and spreads from the skin to lymph nodes and internal organs; a common manifestation of AIDS
Kaposi's varicelliform eruption
a now rare complication of vaccinia superimposed on atopic dermatitis with high fever and generalized vesicles and papulovesicles
Kawasaki disease
an acute disease of young children characterized by a rash and swollen lymph nodes and fever; of unknown cause
abnormal bulging of the cornea of the eye
skin tumor that grows rapidly (especially in older people) and resembles a carcinoma but does not spread; it usually disappears spontaneously, often leaving a scar
hernia of the cornea
abnormal cone-shaped protrusion of the cornea of the eye; can be treated by epikeratophakia
keratoderma blennorrhagica
skin disease characterized by a scaly rash on the palms and soles; associated with Reiter's syndrome
any skin disorder consisting of a growth that appears horny
any abnormal condition of the outer skin (epidermis)
any disease of the cornea
a skin condition marked by an overgrowth of layers of horny skin
keratosis pilaris
keratosis characterized by hard conical elevations in the openings of sebaceous glands (especially of arms and thighs)
ulcerated chilblain on the heel
kidney disease
a disease affecting the kidneys
kidney failure
inability of the kidneys to excrete wastes and to help maintain the electrolyte balance
the state of being dizzy or nauseated because of the motions that occur while traveling in or on a moving vehicle
king's evil
a form of tuberculosis characterized by swellings of the lymphatic glands
a progressive disease of the central nervous system marked by increasing lack of coordination and advancing to paralysis and death within a year of the appearance of symptoms; thought to have been transmitted by cannibalistic consumption of diseased brain tissue since the disease virtually disappeared when cannibalism was abandoned
severe malnutrition in children resulting from a diet excessively high in carbohydrates and low in protein
a torn ragged wound
lactase deficiency
congenital disorder consisting of an inability to digest milk and milk products; absence or deficiency of lactase results in an inability to hydrolyze lactose
Lafora's disease
epilepsy characterized by clonus of muscle groups and progressive mental deterioration and genetic origin
abnormal condition in which an eye cannot close completely
defective articulation of the `l' phoneme or the phoneme `r' is pronounced as `l'
speech defect involving excessive use or unusual pronunciation of the phoneme `l'
Lambert-Eaton syndrome
a disease seen in patients with lung cancer and characterized by weakness and fatigue of hip and thigh muscles and an aching back; caused by antibodies directed against the neuromuscular junctions
hernia through the abdomen
abnormal narrowing of the larynx
Lassa fever
an acute contagious viral disease of central western Africa; characterized by fever and inflammation and muscular pains and difficulty swallowing; can be used as a bioweapon
a state of comatose torpor (as found in sleeping sickness)
late blight
blight in which symptoms appear late in the growing season especially a disease of solanaceous plants caused by the fungus Phytophthora infestans
a chronic inflammatory collagen disease affecting connective tissue (skin or joints)
lead poisoning
toxic condition produced by the absorption of excessive lead into the system
leaf blight
any blight causing a browning and falling of the leaves of a plant
leaf cast
a disease of conifers causing the needles to fall
leaf disease
any plant disease localized in the foliage
leaf scorch
plant disease causing a burned or scorched appearance of the foliage
soft watery rot in fruits and vegetables caused by fungi
learning disability
a disorder found in children of normal intelligence who have difficulties in learning specific skills
legal blindness
vision that is 20/200 or worse in both eyes (20/200 vision is the ability to see at 20 feet what a normal eye can see at 200 feet)
Legionnaires' disease
acute (sometimes fatal) lobar pneumonia caused by bacteria of a kind first recognized after an outbreak of the disease at an American Legion convention in Philadelphia in 1976; characterized by fever and muscle and chest pain and headache and chills and a dry cough
benign tumor of smooth muscle (usually in the uterus or digestive tract)
sarcoma of smooth muscle; occurs most often digestive tract or uterus or bladder or prostate
a morbid fear of snakes
lepromatous leprosy
a very serious form of leprosy characterized by lesions that spread over much of the body and affecting many systems of the body
inflammation of the leptomeninges
an infectious disease cause by leptospira and transmitted to humans from domestic animals; characterized by jaundice and fever
any localized abnormal structural change in a bodily part
an injury to living tissue (especially an injury involving a cut or break in the skin)
an abnormal increase in the number of white blood cells in the blood as a result of infection (as in leukemia)
eye disease consisting of an opaque white spot on the cornea
an abnormal lowering of the white blood cell count
a congenital skin condition characterized by spots or bands of unpigmented skin
infectious disease caused by a species of chlamydia bacterium; transmitted by sexual contact; characterized by genital lesions and swelling of lymph nodes in the groin
any of several eruptive skin diseases characterized by hard thick lesions grouped together and resembling lichens growing on rocks
lichen planus
an eruption of shiny flat-topped purplish (usually itchy) papules on the wrist and forearms and thighs
limb-girdle muscular dystrophy
an autosomal recessive form of muscular dystrophy that appears anywhere from late childhood to middle age; characterized by progressive muscular weakness beginning either in the shoulder or pelvic girdle; usually progresses slowly with cardiopulmonary complications in the later stages
a disorder of lipid metabolism; abnormal levels of certain fats accumulate in the body
pathology in which fat accumulates in lipomas in the body
sarcoma of fat cells
a speech defect that involves pronouncing `s' like voiceless `th' and `z' like voiced `th'
listeria meningitis
an infectious disease of animals and humans (especially newborn or immunosuppressed persons) caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes; in sheep and cattle the infection frequently involves the central nervous system and causes various neurological symptoms
the formation of stones (calculi) in an internal organ
little potato
rhizoctinia disease of potatoes
skin disorder characterized by patchy bluish discolorations on the skin
liver disease
a disease affecting the liver
lobar pneumonia
pneumonia affecting one or more lobes of the lung; commonly due to streptococcal infection
local anaesthesia
loss of sensation in a small area of the body (as when a local anesthetic is injected for a tooth extraction)
an acute and serious infection of the central nervous system caused by bacterial infection of open wounds; spasms of the jaw and laryngeal muscles may occur during the late stages
loco disease
a disease of livestock caused by locoweed poisoning; characterized by weakness and lack of coordination and trembling and partial paralysis
locomotor ataxia
syphilis of the spinal cord characterized by degeneration of sensory neurons and stabbing pains in the trunk and legs and unsteady gait and incontinence and impotence
looping ill
an acute viral disease of the nervous system in sheep; can be transmitted by Ixodes ricinus
loose smut
disease of grains; the entire head is a dusty mass of spores
Lou Gehrig's disease
thickening of tissue in the motor tracts of the lateral columns and anterior horns of the spinal cord; results in progressive muscle atrophy that starts in the limbs
lower respiratory infection
infection of the lower respiratory tract
a common venereal disease caused by the treponema pallidum spirochete; symptoms change through progressive stages; can be congenital (transmitted through the placenta)
lung cancer
carcinoma of the lungs; one of the commonest forms of cancer
any of several forms of ulcerative skin disease
lupus vulgaris
tuberculosis of the skin; appears first on the face and heals slowly leaving deep scars
Lyme arthritis
an acute inflammatory disease characterized by a rash with joint swelling and fever; caused by bacteria carried by the bite of a deer tick
an abnormally enlarged lymph node
chronic abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes (usually associated with disease)
dilatation of a lymph vessel
benign angioma consisting of a mass of lymphatic vessels
lymphoblastic leukemia
a form of lymphocytic leukemia in which the abnormal cells in the circulating blood are almost totally lymphoblasts
lymphocytic choriomeningitis
a form of viral meningitis caused by a virus carried by the common house mouse
lymphocytic leukemia
leukemia characterized by enlargement of lymphoid tissues and lymphocytic cells in the circulating blood
an abnormally small number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood
an abnormal increase in the number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood
a neoplasm of lymph tissue that is usually malignant; one of the four major types of cancer
lysine intolerance
a disorder in which a lack of certain enzymes makes it impossible to digest the amino acid lysine
an inborn error of metabolism in which the lack of certain enzymes leads to an inability to metabolize the amino acid lysine; characterized by muscular weakness and mental retardation
an abnormally large braincase
an abnormally large head; differs from hydrocephalus because there is no increased intracranial pressure and the overgrowth is symmetrical
macrocytic anaemia
anemia in which the average size of erythrocytes is larger than normal
the presence of macrocytes in the blood
a congenital disorder characterized by an abnormally large tongue; often seen in cases of Down's syndrome
macular degeneration
eye disease caused by degeneration of the cells of the macula lutea and results in blurred vision; can cause blindness
macular edema
an eye disease caused by a swelling of the macula resulting from leakage and accumulation of fluid
major depressive episode
(psychiatry) a state of depression with all the classic symptoms (anhedonia and lethargy and sleep disturbance and despondency and morbid thoughts and feelings of worthlessness and sometimes attempted suicide) but with no known organic dysfunction
mal de mer
motion sickness experienced while traveling on water
a state of abnormal softening of tissue
the condition of being unable to adapt properly to your environment with resulting emotional instability
an infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito; marked by paroxysms of chills and fever
malathion poisoning
a toxic condition caused by inhaling or ingesting the insecticide Malathion
(medicine) a malignant state; progressive and resistant to treatment and tending to cause death
malignant anaemia
a chronic progressive anemia of older adults; thought to result from a lack of intrinsic factor (a substance secreted by the stomach that is responsible for the absorption of vitamin B12)
malignant hypertension
severe hypertension that runs a rapid course and damages the inner linings of the blood vessels and the heart and spleen and kidneys and brain
malignant hyperthermia
hereditary condition in which certain anesthetics (e.g., halothane) cause high body temperatures and muscle rigidity
malignant melanoma
any of several malignant neoplasms (usually of the skin) consisting of melanocytes
malignant neoplasm
a tumor that is malignant and tends to spread to other parts of the body
malignant neuroma
a malignant neoplasm of nerve tissue and fibrous tissue and connective tissue
not having enough food to develop or function normally
a state of poor nutrition; can result from insufficient or excessive or unbalanced diet or from inability to absorb foods
(dentistry) a condition in which the opposing teeth do not mesh normally
a persistent and contagious disease of the skin causing inflammation and itching and loss of hair; affects domestic animals (and sometimes people)
a mood disorder; an affective disorder in which the victim tends to respond excessively and sometimes violently
extreme malnutrition and emaciation (especially in children); can result from inadequate intake of food or from malabsorption or metabolic disorders
Marburg hemorrhagic fever
a viral disease of green monkeys caused by the Marburg virus; when transmitted to humans it causes serious or fatal illness
Marfan's syndrome
an autosomal dominant disease characterized by elongated bones (especially of limbs and digits) and abnormalities of the eyes and circulatory system
Marie-Strumpell disease
a chronic form of spondylitis primarily in males and marked by impaired mobility of the spine; sometimes leads to ankylosis
any pathology of the breast
a desire for wealth and material possessions with little interest in ethical or spiritual matters
McArdle's disease
an inherited disease in which abnormal amounts of glycogen accumulate in skeletal muscle; results in weakness and cramping
an acute and highly contagious viral disease marked by distinct red spots followed by a rash; occurs primarily in children
Meckel's diverticulum
a congenital diverticulum in the ileum resulting from incomplete closure of the yolk sac
Mediterranean anaemia
an inherited form of anemia caused by faulty synthesis of hemoglobin
Mediterranean fever
infectious bacterial disease of human beings transmitted by contact with infected animals or infected meat or milk products; characterized by fever and headache
megaloblastic anaemia
anemia characterized by many large immature and dysfunctional red blood cells (megaloblasts) in the bone marrow; associated with pernicious anemia
Meibomian cyst
a small sebaceous cyst of the eyelid resulting when a Meibomian gland is blocked
a condition characterized by abnormal deposits of melanin (especially in the skin)
Meniere's disease
a disease of the inner ear characterized by episodes of dizziness and tinnitus and progressive hearing loss (usually unilateral)
a tumor arising in the meninges which surround the brain and spinal cord; usually slow growing and sometimes malignant
infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the meninges (the tissues that surround the brain or spinal cord) usually caused by a bacterial infection; symptoms include headache and stiff neck and fever and nausea
a congenital anomaly of the central nervous system in which a sac protruding from the brain or the spinal meninges contains cerebrospinal fluid (but no nerve tissue)
mental abnormality
any abnormality of mental function
mercury poisoning
a toxic condition caused by ingesting or inhaling mercury; acute mercury poisoning causes a metallic taste and vomiting and diarrhea and kidney problems that may lead to death
congenital absence of part of an arm or leg
a form of carcinoma of the mesothelium lining lungs or abdomen or heart; usually associated with exposure to asbestos dust
metabolic acidosis
acidosis and bicarbonate concentration in the body fluids resulting either from the accumulation of acids or the abnormal loss of bases from the body (as in diarrhea or renal disease)
metabolic alkalosis
alkalosis resulting from hydrogen-ion loss or excessive intake of alkaline substances
metabolic disorder
a disorder or defect of metabolism
a defect of vision in which objects appear to be distorted; usually due to a defect in the retina
metaplastic anaemia
pernicious anemia in which the various formed elements in the blood are changed
bleeding from the uterus that is not due to menstruation; usually indicative of disease (as cervical cancer)
destruction of heart tissue resulting from obstruction of the blood supply to the heart muscle
abnormally small arms
an abnormally small head and underdeveloped brain
microcytic anaemia
anemia in which the average size of erythrocytes is smaller than normal
a blood disorder characterized by the presence of microcytes (abnormally small red blood cells) in the blood; often associated with anemia
miliary fever
epidemic in the 15th and 16th centuries and characterized by profuse sweating and high mortality
miliary tuberculosis
acute tuberculosis characterized by the appearance of tiny tubercles on one or more organs of the body (presumably resulting from tubercle bacilli being spread in the bloodstream)
milk sickness
caused by consuming milk from cattle suffering from trembles
milk sickness
disease of livestock and especially cattle poisoned by eating certain kinds of snakeroot
any disease that shows symptoms characteristic of another disease
Minamata disease
a form of mercury poisoning among people who ate fish from mercury-contaminated waters of Minamata Bay off Japan in the 1950s; characterized by severe neurological degeneration
mitral stenosis
obstruction or narrowing of the mitral valve (as by scarring from rheumatic fever)
mitral valve prolapse
cardiopathy resulting from the mitral valve not regulating the flow of blood between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart
any skin disease characterized by soft pulpy nodules
molluscum contagiosum
a virus disease of the skin marked by round white swellings; transmitted from person to person (most often in children or in adults with impaired immune function)
complete color blindness; colors can be differentiated only on the basis of brightness
monogenic disease
an inherited disease controlled by a single pair of genes
any neuropathy of a single nerve trunk
paralysis of a single limb
failure of one testes to descend into the scrotum
chromosomal abnormality consisting of the absence of one chromosome from the normal diploid number
monostotic fibrous dysplasia
fibrous dysplasia of bone confined to a single bone
moon blindness
recurrent eye inflammation in horses; sometimes resulting in blindness
moon blindness
inability to see clearly in dim light; due to a deficiency of vitamin A or to a retinal disorder
localized scleroderma
viral disease in solanaceous plants (tomatoes, potatoes, tobacco) resulting in mottling and often shriveling of the leaves
mosquito bite
a sting inflicted by a mosquito
mountain sickness
nausea and shortness of breath experienced by mountain climbers above ten thousand feet
a chronic progressive nervous disorder involving loss of myelin sheath around certain nerve fibers
any of a group of genetic disorders involving a defect in the metabolism of mucopolysaccharides resulting in greater than normal levels of mucopolysaccharides in tissues
multiple mononeuropathy
pathology of several individual nerve trunks
multiple myeloma
myeloma that develops in several places at the same time
multiple personality
a relatively rare dissociative disorder in which the usual integrity of the personality breaks down and two or more independent personalities emerge
any disease of domestic animals that resembles a plague
the physiological state of having or consisting of muscle
mushroom poisoning
toxic condition caused by eating certain species of mushrooms (especially Amanita species)
musicogenic epilepsy
reflex epilepsy induced by music
a morbid fear of mice
any muscular weakness
a chronic progressive disease characterized by chronic fatigue and muscular weakness (especially in the face and neck); caused by a deficiency of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions
myeloblastic leukemia
a malignant neoplasm of blood-forming tissues; characterized by numerous myeloblasts in the blood stream
fibrosis of the bone marrow
a tumor of the bone marrow (usually malignant) composed of cells normally found in bone marrow
a congenital defect of the central nervous system in which a sac containing part of the spinal cord and its meninges protrude through a gap in the vertebral column; frequently accompanied by hydrocephalus and mental retardation
a benign tumor composed of muscle tissue
any pathology of the muscles that is not attributable to nerve dysfunction
(ophthalmology) eyesight abnormality resulting from the eye's faulty refractive ability; distant objects appear blurred
sarcoma of muscle tissue
a morbid fear of dirt or contamination
hypothyroidism marked by dry skin and swellings around lips and nose as well as mental deterioration
a benign tumor of connective tissue containing jellylike material
a viral disease (usually fatal) of rabbits
nabothian cyst
a cyst that forms in the nabothian glands of the uterine cervix
condition in which both eyes are abnormally small but otherwise normal
naphthalene poisoning
toxic condition resulting from inhaling or ingesting naphthalene
a sleep disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable episodes of deep sleep
an acute inflammatory disease occurring in the intestines of premature infants; necrosis of intestinal tissue may follow
necrobiosis lipoidica
skin disease marked by thin shiny patches (especially on the legs); often associated with diabetes mellitus
a morbid fear of novelty
an abnormal new mass of tissue that serves no purpose
kidney disease that is usually associated with hypertension; sclerosis of the renal arterioles reduces blood flow that can lead to kidney failure and heart failure
renal lithiasis in which calcium deposits form in the renal parenchyma and result in reduced kidney function and blood in the urine
nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
diabetes insipidus caused by a failure of the kidney to respond to normal levels of vasopressin
the presence of kidney stones (calculi) in the kidney
prolapse of the kidney
nerve compression
harmful pressure on a nerve (especially in nerves that pass over rigid prominences); causes nerve damage and muscle weakness
nerve deafness
hearing loss due to failure of the auditory nerve
nerve entrapment
repeated and long-term nerve compression (usually in nerves near joints that are subject to inflammation or swelling)
nervous breakdown
a severe or incapacitating emotional disorder
nervous disorder
a disorder of the nervous system
nervous exhaustion
an emotional disorder that leaves you exhausted and unable to work
nervous breakdown (not in technical use)
tumor of the fibrous covering of a peripheral nerve
tumor (usually benign) of the sheath surrounding a nerve
malignant tumor containing embryonic nerve cells; usually metastasizes quickly
dermatitis in which localized areas (especially the forearms or back of the neck or outer part of the ankle) itch persistently; cause is unknown
malignant tumor of the neuroepithelium
neurogenic bladder
a urinary bladder disorder caused by a lesion in the nervous system
any tumor derived from cells of the nervous system
any pathology of the peripheral nerves
a mental or personality disturbance not attributable to any known neurological or organic dysfunction
syphilis of the central nervous system
neurotic depression
a term used for any state of depression that is not psychotic
leukopenia in which the decrease is primarily in number of neutrophils (the chief phagocytic leukocyte)
nevoid elephantiasis
thickening of the skin (usually unilateral on an extremity) caused by congenital enlargement of lymph vessel and lymph vessel obstruction
New World leishmaniasis
a form of leishmaniasis endemic in Mexico and Central American and South America; sores are limited to the skin and mucosa
Newcastle disease
disease of domestic fowl and other birds
sexually transmitted urethritis (usually caused by chlamydia)
nicotine addiction
an addiction to nicotine
nicotine poisoning
toxic condition caused by the ingestion or inhalation of large amounts of nicotine
Niemann-Pick disease
a disorder of lipid metabolism that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait
a cancerous ulcer of soft tissue and bone
acute ulceration of the mucous membranes of the mouth or genitals; often seen in undernourished children
nonthrombocytopenic purpura
purpura resulting from a defect in the capillaries caused by bacteria or drugs
normal tension glaucoma
glaucoma that results from damage to the optic nerve although the intraocular pressure is normal
normal body temperature
NREM sleep
a recurring sleep state during which rapid eye movements do not occur and dreaming does not occur; accounts for about 75% of normal sleep time
inflammation of the urethra of unknown cause
nuclear cataract
a cataract that affects the nucleus of the lens
a morbid fear of night or darkness
a frenzy of emotion; as for something unattainable
oat cell carcinoma
highly malignant carcinoma composed of small round or egg-shaped cells with little cytoplasm; lung cancers are frequently oat cell carcinomas
obsessive-compulsive disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent and persistent thoughts and feelings and repetitive, ritualized behaviors
obstructive shock
shock caused by obstruction of blood flow
oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy
a form of muscular dystrophy that usually begins between early adulthood and middle age and first affects muscles of the eyelid and throat; progresses slowly with swallowing problems common as the disease progresses; inheritance is autosomal dominant
Old World leishmaniasis
leishmaniasis of the skin; characterized by ulcerative skin lesions
congenital condition in which some fingers or toes are missing
congenital condition in which some of the teeth are missing
insufficient spermatozoa in the semen
protrusion of the intestine and omentum through a hernia in the abdominal wall near the navel; usually self correcting after birth
onion yellow dwarf
the yellow dwarf disease of onion plants
separation of a nail from its normal attachment to the nail bed
any disease or disorder of the nails
poisoning by snake venom
paralysis of the motor nerves of the eye
opportunistic infection
any infection caused by a microorganism that does not normally cause disease in humans; occurs in persons with abnormally functioning immune systems (as AIDS patients or transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs)
oral cancer
malignant neoplasm of the lips of mouth; most common in men over the age of 60
organic brain syndrome
mental abnormality resulting from disturbance of the structure or function of the brain
organic disorder
disorder caused by a detectable physiological or structural change in an organ
an atypical pneumonia caused by a rickettsia microorganism and transmitted to humans from infected birds
a form of chorea in which spasms occur mainly when the patient is erect
orthostatic hypotension
low blood pressure occurring in some people when they stand up
benign tumor of bone and fibrous tissue; occurs in the vertebrae or femur or tibia or arm bones (especially in young adults)
benign tumor containing both bone and cartilage; usually occurs near the end of a long bone
defective bone development; usually attributable to renal disease or to disturbances in calcium and phosphorus metabolism
osteogenesis imperfecta
autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue characterized by brittle bones that fracture easily
osteogenic sarcoma
malignant bone tumor; most common in children and young adults where it tends to affect the femur
a slow growing benign tumor of consisting of bone tissue; usually on the skull or mandible
abnormal softening of bones caused by deficiencies of phosphorus or calcium or vitamin D
abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium; most common in postmenopausal women
abnormal hardening or eburnation of bone
discharge from the external ear
hereditary disorder in which ossification of the labyrinth of the inner ear causes tinnitus and eventual deafness
ovarian cyst
a cystic tumor (usually benign) of the ovary
ovarian pregnancy
ectopic pregnancy in the ovary
(dentistry) malocclusion in which the upper teeth extend abnormally far over the lower teeth
oxygen debt
a cumulative deficit of oxygen resulting from intense exercise; the deficit must be made up when the body returns to rest
a chronic disease of the nose characterized by a foul-smelling nasal discharge and atrophy of nasal structures
ozone sickness
illness that can occur to persons exposed to ozone in high-altitude aircraft; characterized by sleepiness and headache and chest pains and itchiness
an abnormal thickness of the lips
a pathological condition in which a word is rapidly and involuntarily repeated
an abnormality in which the fingers are webbed
loss of the ability to move a body part
pancreatic cancer
cancer of the pancreas
an abnormal deficiency in all blood cells (red blood cells and white blood cells and platelets); usually associated with bone marrow tumor or with aplastic anemia
panic disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by unpredictable panic attacks; the attacks are usually severe but brief
papillary tumor
a benign epithelial tumor forming a rounded mass
pappataci fever
a mild viral disease transmitted by the bite of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasii
a small inflamed elevation of skin that is nonsuppurative (as in chicken pox)
a papule that changes into a blister
(obstetrics) the number of liveborn children a woman has delivered
paracentral scotoma
a scotoma that is adjacent to the fixation point
paracervical block
regional anesthesia resulting from the injection of a local anesthetic on each side of the cervix; used during labor and childbirth
paralytic abasia
abasia related to paralysis of the leg muscles
a slight paralysis or weakness of both legs
paralysis of the lower half of the body (most often as a result of trauma)
paraquat poisoning
poisoning caused by ingestion of paraquat; characterized by progressive damage to the esophagus and liver and kidneys
a condition in which parasites are present in the blood
parathion poisoning
a toxic condition resulting from inhalation or ingestion of the insecticide parathion; characterized by nausea and abdominal pains and headache and convulsions and sweating
any of a variety of infectious intestinal diseases resembling typhoid fever
a slight or partial paralysis
Parkinson's syndrome
a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by tremor and impaired muscular coordination
infection in the tissues adjacent to a nail on a finger or toe
paroxysmal trepidant abasia
abasia related to spasticity of the legs
parrot disease
infectious disease of birds
something that is desired intensely
pathological state
a physical condition that is caused by disease
any deviation from a healthy or normal condition
pavor nocturnus
a disorder of sleep characterized by a dream of terrifying dimensions far worse than a typical nightmare; they occur during NREM sleep
peach blight
a disease of trees bearing drupes
the thin process of tissue that attaches a polyp to the body
pedunculated polyp
a polyp with a stalk or peduncle
any of several blood diseases causing subcutaneous bleeding
a skin disease characterized by large thin-walled blisters (bullae) arising from normal skin or mucous membrane
penetrating injury
injury incurred when an object (as a knife or bullet or shrapnel) penetrates into the body
peptic ulcer
an ulcer of the mucous membrane lining of the alimentary tract
periarteritis nodosa
a progressive disease of connective tissue that is characterized by nodules along arteries; nodules may block the artery and result in inadequate circulation to the particular area
pus pocket formation around a tooth
periodontal disease
a disease that attacks the gum and bone and around the teeth
peritonsillar abscess
a painful pus filled inflammation of the tonsils and surrounding tissues; usually a complication of tonsillitis
personality disorder
inflexible and maladaptive patterns of behavior
a disease of the respiratory mucous membrane
a serious (sometimes fatal) infection of rodents caused by Yersinia pestis and accidentally transmitted to humans by the bite of a flea that has bitten an infected animal
any epidemic disease with a high death rate
pesticide poisoning
toxic condition resulting from ingesting or inhaling a pesticide
a minute red or purple spot on the surface of the skin as the result of tiny hemorrhages of blood vessels in the skin (as in typhoid fever)
a vascular tumor of the adrenal gland; hypersecretion of epinephrine results in intermittent or sustained hypertension
inflammation of the fauces and pharynx
an abnormal tightness of the foreskin preventing retraction over the glans
an anxiety disorder characterized by extreme and irrational fear of simple things or social situations
a morbid fear of developing a phobia
an abnormality of development in which the upper part of an arm or leg is missing so the hands or feet are attached to the body like stumps; rare condition that results from taking thalidomide during pregnancy
photogenic epilepsy
reflex epilepsy induced by a flickering light
a morbid fear of light
damage to the retina resulting from exposure of the eye to the sun without adequate protection
an eating disorder, frequent in children, in which non-nutritional objects are eaten persistently
inflammation of the female pelvic organs (especially the Fallopian tubes) caused by infection by any of several microorganisms (chiefly gonococci and chlamydia); symptoms are abdominal pain and fever and foul-smelling vaginal discharge
pigeon toes
disability in which the toes are turned inward; often associated with knock-knee
pilar cyst
a common cyst of the skin; filled with fatty matter (sebum) that is secreted by a sebaceous gland that has been blocked
an injury resulting from getting some body part squeezed
tumor of the pineal gland
pink disease
serious bark disease of many tropical crop trees (coffee, citrus, rubber); branches have a covering of pink hyphae
a fungal disease of onions
a disease of poultry
a minor nonspecific ailment
any of several skin disorders characterized by shedding dry flakes of skin
pityriasis alba
common form of pityriasis (usually in children or young adults) characterized by round patches of depigmentation
pityriasis rosea
pityriasis in which an itchy rash develops over the trunk and extremities
kidney disease characterized by enlarged kidneys containing many cysts; often leads to kidney failure
a genetic disorder of metabolism; lack of the enzyme needed to turn phenylalanine into tyrosine results in an accumulation of phenylalanine in the body fluids which causes various degrees of mental deficiency
placenta previa
pregnancy in which the placenta is implanted in the lower part of the uterus (instead of the upper part); can cause bleeding late in pregnancy; delivery by cesarean section may be necessary
congenital malformation of the skull in which the main axis of the skull is oblique
plague pneumonia
a rapidly progressive and frequently fatal form of the plague that can spread through the air from person to person; characterized by lung involvement with chill, bloody expectoration and high fever
plant disease
a disease that affects plants
plantar wart
a wart occurring on the sole of the foot
neoplasm of plasma cells (usually in bone marrow)
pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma
form of rhabdomyosarcoma that affects limb muscles of older adults
inflammation of the pleura of the lungs (especially the parietal layer)
pleurisy and pneumonia
pneumococcal pneumonia
pneumonia caused by bacteria of the genus pneumococcus
chronic respiratory disease caused by inhaling metallic or mineral particles
respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants
abnormal presence of air in the pleural cavity resulting in the collapse of the lung; may be spontaneous (due to injury to the chest) or induced (as a treatment for tuberculosis)
a pustule in an eruptive disease
poison ivy
dermatitis resulting from contact with the poison ivy plant
poison oak
dermatitis resulting from contact with a poison oak plant
poison sumac
dermatitis resulting from contact with a poison sumac plant
a disorder characterized by an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells in the blood
excessive thirst (as in cases of diabetes or kidney dysfunction)
polygenic disease
an inherited disease controlled by several genes at once
a small vascular growth on the surface of a mucous membrane
congenital defect of having one or more extra chromosomes in somatic cells
renal disorder characterized by the production of large volumes of pale dilute urine; often associated with diabetes
a genetic abnormality of metabolism causing abdominal pains and mental confusion
portal hypertension
increase in blood pressure in the veins of the portal system caused by obstruction in the liver (often associated with alcoholic cirrhosis), causing enlargement of the spleen and collateral veins
posterior subcapsular cataract
a cataract in the rear of the lens capsule
posterior synechia
adhesion between the iris and the lens
posttraumatic epilepsy
a convulsive epileptic state caused by a head injury
potato blight
a blight of potatoes
potato mosaic
a disease of the leaves of potato plants
potato wart
fungous disease causing dark warty spongy excrescences in the eyes of potato tubers
potato yellow dwarf
the yellow dwarf disease of potato plants
the state of being potent; a male's capacity to have sexual intercourse
Pott's disease
TB of the spine with destruction of vertebrae resulting in curvature of the spine
a contagious disease characterized by purulent skin eruptions that may leave pock marks
abnormal state of pregnancy characterized by hypertension and fluid retention and albuminuria; can lead to eclampsia if untreated
condition in which the penis is continually erect; usually painful and seldom with sexual arousal
primary syphilis
the first stage; characterized by a chancre at the site of infection
protrusion or herniation of the rectum into the vagina; can occur if pelvic muscles are weakened by childbirth
procursive epilepsy
epilepsy in which a seizure is induced by whirling or running
a rare abnormality marked by premature aging (grey hair and wrinkled skin and stooped posture) in a child
progressive vaccinia
a severe or even fatal form of vaccinia that occurs mainly in persons with an immunological deficiency; characterized by progressive enlargement of the initial lesion
prostate cancer
cancer of the prostate gland
dichromacy characterized by lowered sensitivity to long wavelengths of light resulting in an inability to distinguish red and purplish blue
protozoal infection
any infection caused by a protozoan
chronic inflammatory disease of the skin characterized by blister capped papules and intense itching
a tumor derived from fibrous tissue of the meninges or choroid plexus or certain other structures associated with the brain; characterized by sandlike particles
congenital condition in which a person has external genitalia of one sex and internal sex organs of the other sex
a chronic disorder that occurs in tropical and non-tropical forms and in both children and adults; nutrients are not absorbed; symptoms include foul-smelling diarrhea and emaciation
a chronic skin disease characterized by dry red patches covered with scales; occurs especially on the scalp and ears and genitalia and the skin over bony prominences
psoriatic arthritis
a form of rheumatoid arthritis usually affecting fingers and toes and associated with psoriasis
psychomotor epilepsy
epilepsy characterized clinically by impairment of consciousness and amnesia for the episode; often involves purposeful movements of the arms and legs and sometimes hallucinations
psychosomatic disorder
a mental disorder that causes somatic symptoms
psychotic depression
a state of depression so severe that the person loses contact with reality and suffers a variety of functional impairments
a term for food poisoning that is no longer in scientific use; food poisoning was once thought to be caused by ingesting ptomaines
drooping of the upper eyelid caused by muscle paralysis and weakness
an anxiety disorder associated with serious traumatic events and characterized by such symptoms as survivor guilt, reliving the trauma in dreams, numbness and lack of involvement with reality, or recurrent thoughts and images
pudendal block
regional anesthesia resulting from the use of a local anesthetic to deaden the pudendal nerves in the region of the vulva and labia majora; used to ease discomfort during childbirth
a sharp strain on muscles or ligaments
pulmonary stenosis
abnormal narrowing of the opening into the pulmonary artery from the right ventricle
purulent pleurisy
a collection of pus in the lung cavity
a small inflamed elevation of skin containing pus; a blister filled with pus
irregularity of cardiac rhythm; recurrent occurrences can be a precursor of ventricular fibrillation
septicemia caused by pus-forming bacteria being released from an abscess
a form of dwarfism accompanied by fragile bones and bad teeth
a degenerative state of the cell nucleus
inflammation of the renal pelvis
inflammation of the kidney and its pelvis caused by bacterial infection
pyloric stenosis
narrowing of the pyloric sphincter that blocks the passage of food from the stomach into the duodenum
discharge of pus
a morbid fear of fire
Q fever
an acute disease resembling influenza
blindness in one fourth of the visual field
paralysis of both arms and both legs
quarter crack
a crack on the inside of a horse's forefoot
a not uncommon congenital defect in which a vertebra is malformed; unless several vertebrae are affected or there is myelomeningocele there are few symptoms; can be diagnosed by amniocentesis
childhood disease caused by deficiency of vitamin D and sunlight associated with impaired metabolism of calcium and phosphorus
an attractive combination of good health and happiness
a state of extreme anger
a cyst on the underside of the tongue
ratbite fever
either of two infectious diseases transmitted to humans by the bite of a rat or mouse; characterized by fever and headache and nausea and skin eruptions
raw wound
a wound that exposes subcutaneous tissue
recurrent fever
marked by recurring high fever and transmitted by the bite of infected lice or ticks; characterized by episodes of high fever and chills and headache and muscle pain and nausea that recur every week or ten days for several months
red water
a disease of cattle; characterized by hematuria
red-green color blindness
confusion of red and green
reflex epilepsy
a form of epilepsy in which attacks are induced by peripheral stimulation
an abnormal backward flow of body fluids
refractory anaemia
any of various anemic conditions that are not successfully treated by any means other than blood transfusions (and that are not associated with another primary disease)
regional anaesthesia
loss of sensation in a region of the body produced by application of an anesthetic agent to all the nerves supplying that region (as when an epidural anesthetic is administered to the pelvic region during childbirth)
REM sleep
a recurring sleep state during which dreaming occurs; a state of rapidly shifting eye movements during sleep
renal insufficiency
insufficient excretion of wastes by the kidneys
respiratory alkalosis
alkalosis resulting from increased gas exchange in the lungs (as in hyperventilation associated with extreme anxiety or aspirin intoxication or metabolic acidosis)
respiratory disease
a disease affecting the respiratory system
respiratory infection
any infection of the respiratory tract
retarded depression
a state of clinical depression in which the individual is lethargic and slow to initiate action
malignant ocular tumor of retinal cells; usually occurs before the third year of life; composed of primitive small round retinal cells
a disease of the retina that can result in loss of vision
a turning or tilting backward of an organ or body part
Reye's syndrome
acquired encephalopathy following acute viral infections (especially influenza or chicken pox) in young children; characterized by fever, vomiting, disorientation, coma, and fatty infiltration of the liver
Rh incompatibility
incompatibility of Rh blood types; a transfusion of Rh-positive blood given to a Rh-negative person (or vice versa) can result in hemolysis and anemia
benign tumor of striated muscle
a highly malignant neoplasm derived from striated muscle
cracks or fissures in the skin (especially around the mouth or anus)
rheumatic fever
a severe disease chiefly of children and characterized by painful inflammation of the joints and frequently damage to the heart valves
rheumatic heart disease
heart disease caused by recurrent episodes of rheumatic fever; characterized by changes in the myocardium or scarring of the heart valves that reduce the power of the heart to pump blood
any painful disorder of the joints or muscles or connective tissues
any disease or malformation of the nose
fungal infection of the nose; often acquired while swimming
narrowing of the passages in the nasal cavities
a respiratory infection of the nose and throat in cattle
rhizoctinia disease
disease caused by rhizoctinia or fungi of Pellicularia and Corticium
Rhus dermatitis
contact dermatitis resulting from contact with plants of the genus Toxicodendron
rickettsial disease
infectious disease caused by ticks or mites or body lice infected with rickettsial bacteria
mild infectious rickettsial disease caused by a bacterium of the genus Rickettsia transmitted to humans by the bite a mite that lives on rodents; characterized by chills and fever and headache and skin lesions that resemble chickenpox
Rift Valley fever
an infection common in Africa caused by a bunyavirus; transmitted by mosquitoes or by handling infected animals
Riggs' disease
chronic periodontitis; purulent inflammation of the teeth sockets
rigor mortis
temporary stiffness of joints and muscular rigidity occurring after death
rim blight
a disease of tea plants
ring disease
disease of tomatoes and potatoes and tobacco etc caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas solanacearum
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
caused by rickettsial bacteria and transmitted by wood ticks
root rot
disease characterized by root decay; caused by various fungi
rope burn
abrasion (usually on the hands) caused by friction from a rope
state of being torn or burst open
a plant disease that produces a reddish-brown discoloration of leaves and stems; caused by various rust fungi
saddle block anaesthesia
the parts of a patient's body that would touch a saddle if the patient were sitting in one are anesthetized by injecting a local anesthetic into the spinal cord
saddle sore
sore on a horseback rider chafed by a saddle
Saint Anthony's fire
any of several inflammatory or gangrenous skin conditions
Saint Ignatius' itch
a disease caused by deficiency of niacin or tryptophan (or by a defect in the metabolic conversion of tryptophan to niacin); characterized by gastrointestinal disturbances and erythema and nervous or mental disorders; may be caused by malnutrition or alcoholism or other nutritional impairments
Saint Vitus dance
chorea occurring chiefly in children and associated with rheumatic fever
salicylate poisoning
poisoning caused by the excessive ingestion of salicylates (usually aspirin)
a kind of food poisoning caused by eating foods contaminated with Salmonella typhimurium
sand crack
a fissure in the wall of a horse's hoof often causing lameness
blood poisoning caused by putrefactive bacteria; results from eating putrefied matter
a chronic disease of unknown cause marked by the formation of nodules in the lungs and liver and lymph glands and salivary glands
a usually malignant tumor arising from connective tissue (bone or muscle etc.); one of the four major types of cancer
a respiratory disease of unknown etiology that apparently originated in mainland China in 2003; characterized by fever and coughing or difficulty breathing or hypoxia; can be fatal
an abnormal fear of Satan
a burn cause by hot liquid or steam
congenital malformation of the skull which is long and narrow; frequently accompanied by mental retardation
an acute communicable disease (usually in children) characterized by fever and a red rash
schistosome dermatitis
a sensitization reaction to repeated invasion of the skin by cercariae of schistosomes
characterized by symptoms similar to but less severe than schizophrenia
resembling schizophrenia but remaining within the bounds of normality
school phobia
a child's sudden fear of attending school
a congenital disease affecting T cells that can result from a mutation in any one of several different genes; children with it are susceptible to infectious disease; if untreated it is lethal within the first year or two of life
sclerotium disease
plant disease cause by fungi of the genus Sclerotium; also one in which sclerotia are formed
an abnormal lateral curve to the vertebral column
a condition caused by deficiency of ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
a plant disease that produces a browning or scorched appearance of plant tissues
a surface burn
an isolated area of diminished vision within the visual field
diarrhea in livestock
a fatal disease of sheep characterized by chronic itching and loss of muscular control and progressive degeneration of the central nervous system
scrub typhus
transmitted by larval mites and widespread in Asia
a condition in which overactivity of the sebaceous glands causes the skin to become oily
seborrheic dermatitis
a chronic skin disease associated with seborrhea and greasy scales on the scalp or eyelids or other parts of the skin
seborrheic keratosis
a skin condition characterized by circumscribed wartlike lesions that can be itchy and covered with a greasy crust
second-degree burn
burn causing blisters on the skin and superficial destruction of the dermis
secondary hypertension
hypertension that is secondary to another disease
secondary syphilis
the second stage; characterized by eruptions of the skin and mucous membrane
a state of reduced excitement or anxiety that is induced by the administrative of a sedative agent
malignant tumor of the testis; usually occurring in older men
a state of widespread public excitement and interest
sensory epilepsy
focal epilepsy initiated by somatosensory phenomena
the presence of pus-forming bacteria or their toxins in the blood or tissues
septal defect
a congenital abnormality in the septum between the left and right sides of the heart
septic sore throat
an infection of the oral pharynx and tonsils by streptococcus
septicemic plague
an especially dangerous and generally fatal form of the plague in which infecting organisms invade the bloodstream; does not spread from person to person
any abnormality following or resulting from a disease or injury or treatment
sessile polyp
a relatively flat polyp
sex drive
a physiological need for sexual activity
sex-linked disorder
any disease or abnormality that is determined by the sex hormones
sexual arousal
the arousal of sexual desires in preparation for sexual behavior
shipping fever
a deadly form of septicemia in cattle and sheep; involves high fever and pneumonia; contracted under conditions of exposure or exhaustion (as often happens when the animals are shipped to market)
(pathology) bodily collapse or near collapse caused by inadequate oxygen delivery to the cells; characterized by reduced cardiac output and rapid heartbeat and circulatory insufficiency and pallor
informal term for sleep
sideroblastic anaemia
refractory anemia characterized by sideroblasts in the bone marrow
fibrosis of the lung caused by iron dust; occurs among welders and other metal workers
sudden and unexpected death of an apparently healthy infant during sleep
a lung disease caused by inhaling particles of silica or quartz or slate
simple phobia
any phobia (other than agoraphobia) associated with relatively simple well-defined stimuli
skin cancer
a malignant neoplasm of the skin
an inflammatory disease of connective tissue with variable features including fever and weakness and fatigability and joint pains and skin lesions on the face or neck or arms
sleep apnea
apnea that occurs during sleep
sleep disorder
a disturbance of the normal sleep pattern
a natural and periodic state of rest during which consciousness of the world is suspended
a torpid state resembling deep sleep
the state of being asleep
a highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever and weakness and skin eruption with pustules that form scabs that slough off leaving scars
destructive diseases of plants (especially cereal grasses) caused by fungi that produce black powdery masses of spores
a bite inflicted by a (venomous) snake
temporary blindness caused by exposure to sunlight reflected from snow or ice
social phobia
any phobia (other than agoraphobia) associated with situations in which you are subject to criticism by others (as fear of eating in public or public speaking etc)
the form of ratbite fever occurring in the Far East
soft rot
mushy or slimy decay of plants caused by bacteria or fungi
poor physical condition; being out of shape or out of condition (as from a life of ease and luxury)
an open skin infection
spastic abasia
abasia due to spastic contractions of the leg muscles
spastic bladder
a urinary bladder disorder resulting from spinal cord lesion or multiple sclerosis or trauma; absence of bladder sensation and incontinence and interrupted voiding of urine
a swelling of the hock joint of a horse; resulting in lameness
spider angioma
a dilation of superficial capillaries with a central red dot from which blood vessels radiate
Spielmeyer-Vogt disease
a congenital progressive disorder of lipid metabolism having an onset at age 5 and characterized by blindness and dementia and early death
spinach blight
a disease of spinach plants
spinal curvature
an abnormal curvature of the vertebral column
anesthesia of the lower half of the body; caused by injury to the spinal cord or by injecting an anesthetic beneath the arachnoid membrane that surrounds the spinal cord
spinocerebellar disorder
any of several congenital disorders marked by degeneration of the cerebellum and spinal cord resulting in spasticity and ataxia
an abnormal enlargement of the spleen
arthritis that affects one or more of the intervertebral joints in the spine
a forward dislocation of one vertebra over the one beneath it producing pressure on spinal nerves
spotted fever
any of several severe febrile diseases characterized by skin rashes or spots on the skin
a painful injury to a joint caused by a sudden wrenching of its ligaments
spur blight
a disease of raspberries
abnormal alignment of one or both eyes
a speech disorder involving hesitations and involuntary repetitions of certain sounds
staphylococcal infection
an infection with staphylococcus bacteria; usually marked by abscess formation
starvation acidosis
acidosis in which the acidity results from lack of food which leads to fat catabolism which in turn releases acidic ketone bodies
an abnormal state in which the normal flow of a liquid (such as blood) is slowed or stopped
status asthmaticus
a prolonged and severe asthma attack that does not respond to standard treatment
status epilepticus
a condition in which there are continuing attacks of epilepsy without intervals of consciousness; can lead to brain damage and death
Steinert's disease
a severe form of muscular dystrophy marked by generalized weakness and muscular wasting that affects the face and feet and hands and neck; difficult speech and difficulty with the hands that spreads to the arms and shoulders and legs and hips; the onset can be any time from birth to middle age and the progression is slow; inheritance is autosomal dominant
stem blight
a fungous blight attacking the stems of plants
abnormal narrowing of a bodily canal or passageway
marks resembling the wounds on the crucified body of Christ
Still's disease
a form of rheumatoid arthritis that affects children; large joints become inflamed and bone growth may be retarded
Stokes-Adams syndrome
recurrent sudden attacks of unconsciousness caused by impaired conduction of the impulse that regulates the heartbeat
injury to a muscle (often caused by overuse); results in swelling and pain
the condition of having respiration stopped by compression of the air passage
strawberry haemangioma
a congenital bright red superficial vascular tumor resembling a strawberry; tends to decrease in size during childhood
stripe blight
a disease of oats
the state of being vigorous and robust
the state of being less than normal (especially with respect to intelligence)
infection that occurs while you are being treated for another infection
secondary infection caused by an opportunistic infection
suspended animation
a temporary cessation of vital functions with loss of consciousness resembling death; usually resulting from asphyxia
sweating sickness
a disease of cattle (especially calves)
sweet-potato ring rot
disease of sweet potatoes in which roots are girdled by rings of dry rot
swine flu
an acute and highly contagious respiratory disease of swine caused by the orthomyxovirus thought to be the same virus that caused the 1918 influenza pandemic
an abnormal adhesion of two or more structures
birth defect in which there is partial or total webbing connecting two or more fingers or toes
adhesions between the iris and the lens or cornea resulting from trauma or eye surgery or as a complication of glaucoma or cataract; can lead to blindness
infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (usually in the lungs but in various other parts of the body in acute stages)
abnormally rapid heartbeat (over 100 beats per minute)
talipes calcaneus
talipes in which the toes are pointed upward and the person walks on the heel of the foot
talipes equinus
talipes in which the toes are pointed downward
talipes valgus
deformity of the foot in which the foot is twisted outward
blockage or closure (as of a wound or body cavity) by (or as if by) a tampon (especially to stop bleeding)
tapeworm infection
intestinal infection by a species of parasitic tapeworm; usually the result of eating inadequately cooked meat or fish
a morbid fear of being buried alive
a nervous disorder characterized by an uncontrollable impulse to dance; popularly attributed to bite of the southern European tarantula or wolf spider
tardive dyskinesia
involuntary rolling of the tongue and twitching of the face or trunk or limbs; often occurs in patients with Parkinsonism who are treated with phenothiazine
Tay-Sachs disease
a hereditary disorder of lipid metabolism occurring most frequently in individuals of Jewish descent in eastern Europe; accumulation of lipids in nervous tissue results in death in early childhood
a tumor consisting of a mixture of tissues not normally found at that site
tertiary syphilis
the third stage; characterized by involvement of internal organs especially the brain and spinal cord as well as the heart and liver
a form of dichromacy characterized by lowered sensitivity to yellow light; so rare that its existence has been questioned
tetralogy of Fallot
a congenital heart defect producing cyanosis; characterized by four symptoms: pulmonary stenosis and ventricular septal defect and malposition of the aorta over both ventricles and hypertrophy of the right ventricle
Texas fever
an infectious disease of cattle transmitted by the cattle tick
a morbid fear of death
third-degree burn
burn characterized by destruction of both epidermis and dermis
a physiological need to drink
thoracic actinomycosis
a serious form of actinomycosis that affects the chest
thread blight
a disease of tropical woody plants (cacao or tea or citrus)
a rare autosomal recessive disease in which the platelets do not produce clots in the normal way and hemorrhage results
a blood disease characterized by an abnormally small number of platelets in the blood
brief episode in which the brain gets insufficient blood supply; symptoms depend on the site of the blockage
tin ear
an inability to distinguish differences in pitch
tobacco mosaic
a plant disease causing discoloration of the leaves of tobacco plants
toe crack
a crack on the forepart of a horse's hindfoot
tomato blight
a disease of tomato plants
tomato streak
disease of a wide range of plants (tomatoes, potatoes, peas) resulting from a mixed infection of potato and tomato mosaic
tonic epilepsy
epilepsy in which the body is rigid during the seizure
topical anaesthesia
loss of sensation confined to the skin or mucous surfaces (as when benzocaine or Lidocaine is applied to the surface)
a state of motor and mental inactivity with a partial suspension of sensibility
an unnatural condition in which the head leans to one side because the neck muscles on that side are contracted
an abnormal condition of pregnancy characterized by hypertension and edema and protein in the urine
blood poisoning caused by bacterial toxic substances in the blood
infection caused by parasites transmitted to humans from infected cats; if contracted by a pregnant woman it can result in serious damage to the fetus
a chronic contagious disease caused by a bacterium and marked by inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea of the eye and the formation of scar tissue
transcortical aphasia
a general term for aphasia that results from lesions outside of Broca's area or Wernicke's area of the cerebral cortex
a morbid fear of battle or physical injury
trench fever
marked by pain in muscles and joints and transmitted by lice
infection of the vagina
a morbid fear of the number 13
chrosomal abnormality in which there is one more than the normal number of chromosomes in a cell
trophoblastic cancer
malignant neoplasm of the uterus derived from the epithelium of the chorion
an unwanted pregnancy
tubal pregnancy
ectopic pregnancy in a Fallopian tube
a swelling that is the characteristic lesion of tuberculosis
tuberculoid leprosy
leprosy characterized by tumors in the skin and cutaneous nerves
tunnel vision
visual impairment involving a loss of peripheral vision
Turner's syndrome
a chromosomal disorder in females who have only one X chromosome; marked by dwarfism and heart abnormalities and underdeveloped sex organs
twig blight
a disease of the ends of twigs of woody plants
twilight sleep
a state of general anesthesia in which the person retains a slight degree of consciousness; can be induced by injection of scopolamine or morphine
distension of the abdomen that is caused by the accumulation of gas in the intestines or the peritoneal cavity
type I diabetes
severe diabetes mellitus with an early onset; characterized by polyuria and excessive thirst and increased appetite and weight loss and episodic ketoacidosis; diet and insulin injections are required to control the disease
type II diabetes
mild form of diabetes mellitus that develops gradually in adults; can be precipitated by obesity or severe stress or menopause or other factors; can usually be controlled by diet and hypoglycemic agents without injections of insulin
rickettsial disease transmitted by body lice and characterized by skin rash and high fever
autosomal recessive defect in tyrosine metabolism resulting in liver and kidney disturbances and mental retardation
recession of the gums
a circumscribed inflammatory and often suppurating lesion on the skin or an internal mucous surface resulting in necrosis of tissue
bleeding of the gums
unipolar depression
a major depressive episode that occurs without the manic phase that occurs in the classic form of bipolar disorder
upper respiratory infection
infection of the upper respiratory tract
presence of abnormal amounts of uric acid salts in the blood; symptom of gout
prolapse of the end of the ureter into the bladder; may obstruct urine flow
ureterorenal reflux
a backflow of urine from the ureter into the renal pelvis
stenosis of the ureter
inflammation of the urethra; results in painful urination
prolapse of the urethra into the vagina
presence of abnormal amounts of uric acid in the urine; symptom of gout
urinary tract infection
any infection of any of the organs of the urinary tract
any pathology of the urinary tract
a local infection induced in humans by inoculation with the virus causing cowpox in order to confer resistance to smallpox; normally lasts three weeks and leaves a pitted scar
a deformity in which there is an abnormal displacement of part of a limb away from the midline of the body
valvular heart disease
heart disease caused by stenosis of the cardiac valves and obstructed blood flow or caused by degeneration and blood regurgitation
valvular incompetence
inability of a bodily valve to close completely
dilatation of the veins associated with the spermatic cord in the testes
varicose vein
a vein that is permanently dilated; most common in the legs
pathological condition of being varicose or having varicose veins
varix or varicose condition in which a vein is swollen and tortuous
abnormally enlarged or twisted blood vessel or lymphatic vessel
a deformity in which part of a limb is turned inward to an abnormal degree
an abnormal growth or excrescence (especially a warty excrescence on the valves of the heart)
ventricular aneurysm
a localized dilation or protrusion on the wall of the left ventricle of the heart (occurring after a myocardial infarction)
ventricular fibrillation
fibrillation of heart muscles resulting in interference with rhythmic contractions of the ventricles and possibly leading to cardiac arrest
ventricular septal defect
a common congenital heart defect; an abnormal opening in the septum dividing the ventricles allows blood to pass directly from the left to the right ventricle; large openings may cause congestive heart failure
(pathology) a firm abnormal elevated blemish on the skin; caused by a virus
wilt caused by fungi of the genus Verticillium
vesicoureteral reflux
a backflow of urine from the bladder into the ureter
a group of illnesses caused by a viral infection (usually restricted to a specific geographic area); fever and gastrointestinal symptoms are followed by capillary hemorrhage
a period of sleeplessness
Vincent's infection
an acute communicable infection of the respiratory tract and mouth marked by ulceration of the mucous membrane
the presence of a virus in the blood stream
viral hepatitis
hepatitis caused by a virus
viral infection
infection by a virus that is pathogenic to humans
viral pneumonia
pneumonia caused by a virus
vision defect
impairment of the sense of sight
visual agnosia
inability to recognize or interpret objects in the visual field
the state of being vitalized and filled with life
an acquired skin disease characterized by patches of unpigmented skin (often surrounded by a heavily pigmented border)
abnormal twisting of the intestines (usually in the area of the ileum or sigmoid colon) resulting in intestinal obstruction
von Recklinghausen's disease
autosomal dominant disease characterized by numerous neurofibromas and by spots on the skin and often by developmental abnormalities
von Willebrand's disease
a form of hemophilia discovered by Erik von Willebrand; a genetic disorder that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait; characterized by a deficiency of the coagulation factor and by mucosal bleeding
a periodic state during which you are conscious and aware of the world
a raised mark on the skin (as produced by the blow of a whip); characteristic of many allergic reactions
walnut blight
a disease of English walnut trees
a lumpy abscess under the hide of domestic mammals caused by larvae of a botfly or warble fly
Weil's disease
a severe form of leptospirosis in human beings
Werdnig-Hoffman disease
autosomal recessive disease in which the degeneration of spinal nerve cells and brain nerve cells leads to atrophy of skeletal muscles and flaccid paralysis; death usually occurs in early childhood
Werlhof's disease
purpura associated with a reduction in circulating blood platelets which can result from a variety of factors
Wernicke's aphasia
aphasia characterized by fluent but meaningless speech and severe impairment of the ability understand spoken or written words
Wernicke's encephalopathy
inflammatory degenerative disease of the brain caused by thiamine deficiency that is usually associated with alcoholism
West Indian smallpox
a mild form of smallpox caused by a less virulent form of the virus
wheat scab
a disease of the heads of wheat plants
an injury to the neck (the cervical vertebrae) resulting from rapid acceleration or deceleration (as in an automobile accident)
white-coat hypertension
temporary rise in blood pressure in the doctor's office
Wilms' tumor
malignant renal tumor of young children characterized by hypertension and blood in the urine and the presence of a palpable mass
Wilson's disease
a rare inherited disorder of copper metabolism; copper accumulates in the liver and then in the red blood cells and brain
any plant disease characterized by drooping and shriveling; usually caused by parasites attacking the roots
redness and irritation of the skin caused by exposure to high-velocity wind
X-linked SCID
SCID in male children resulting from mutation of a gene that codes for a protein on the surface of T cells that allows them to develop a growth factor receptor
xanthoma of the eyelids; occurs chiefly in the elderly
a skin problem marked by the development (on the eyelids and neck and back) of irregular yellow nodules; sometimes attributable to disturbances of cholesterol metabolism
xanthoma disseminatum
rare chronic xanthoma of adults in which orange or brownish papules develop on many surfaces of the body
visual defect in which objects appear to have a yellowish hue; sometimes occurs in cases of jaundice
an abnormal yellow discoloration of the skin
a fear of foreigners or strangers
xeroderma pigmentosum
a rare genetic condition characterized by an eruption of exposed skin occurring in childhood and photosensitivity with severe sunburn; inherited as a recessive autosomal trait in which DNA repair processes are defective so they are more likely to chromosome breaks and cancers when exposed to ultraviolet light
a mild form of ichthyosis characterized by abnormal dryness and roughness of the skin
yellow dwarf
any of several virus diseases of plants characterized by stunting and yellowing of the leaves
yellow spot
any of several fungous or viral diseases characterized by yellow spotting on the leaves
yellow-blue color blindness
confusion of yellow and blue
zinc deficiency
a deficiency caused by inadequate zinc in the diet or by liver disease or cystic fibrosis or other diseases
an animal disease that can be transmitted to humans
a morbid fear of animals