statistics
Noun

A branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of probability theory to estimate population parameters (synset 106027814)
domain member category:
 sampling  (statistics) the selection of a suitable sample for study
 distribution, statistical distribution  (statistics) an arrangement of values of a variable showing their observed or theoretical frequency of occurrence
 centile, percentile  (statistics) any of the 99 numbered points that divide an ordered set of scores into 100 parts each of which contains onehundredth of the total
 decile  (statistics) any of nine points that divided a distribution of ranked scores into equal intervals where each interval contains onetenth of the scores
 quartile  (statistics) any of three points that divide an ordered distribution into four parts each containing one quarter of the scores
 cross section  a sample meant to be representative of a whole population
 grab sample  a single sample or measurement taken at a specific time or over as short a period as feasible
 random sample  a sample grabbed at random
 experimental variable, independent variable  (statistics) a variable whose values are independent of changes in the values of other variables
 degree of freedom  (statistics) an unrestricted variable in a frequency distribution
 dependent variable  (statistics) a variable in a logical or mathematical expression whose value depends on the independent variable
 predictor variable  a variable that can be used to predict the value of another variable (as in statistical regression)
 bernoulli's law, law of large numbers  (statistics) law stating that a large number of items taken at random from a population will (on the average) have the population statistics
 bayes' theorem  (statistics) a theorem describing how the conditional probability of a set of possible causes for a given observed event can be computed from knowledge of the probability of each cause and the conditional probability of the outcome of each cause
 bayes' postulate  (statistics) the difficulty of applying Bayes' theorem is that the probabilities of the different causes are seldom known, in which case it may be postulated that they are all equal (sometimes known as postulating the equidistribution of ignorance)
 statistical method, statistical procedure  a method of analyzing or representing statistical data; a procedure for calculating a statistic
 least squares, method of least squares  a method of fitting a curve to data points so as to minimize the sum of the squares of the distances of the points from the curve
 multivariate analysis  a generic term for any statistical technique used to analyze data from more than one variable
 statistic  a datum that can be represented numerically
 average, norm  a statistic describing the location of a distribution
 demographic  a statistic characterizing human populations (or segments of human populations broken down by age or sex or income etc.)
 deviation  the difference between an observed value and the expected value of a variable or function
 moment  the nth moment of a distribution is the expected value of the nth power of the deviations from a fixed value
 distribution free statistic, nonparametric statistic  a statistic computed without knowledge of the form or the parameters of the distribution from which observations are drawn
 parametric statistic  any statistic computed by procedures that assume the data were drawn from a particular distribution
 outlier  an extreme deviation from the mean
 mean deviation, mean deviation from the mean  the arithmetic mean of the absolute values of deviations from the mean of a distribution
 modal value, mode  the most frequent value of a random variable
 median, median value  the number midway between the two middle numbers in a series containing an even or odd number of items
 mean, mean value  an average of n numbers computed by adding some function of the numbers and dividing by some function of n
 arithmetic mean, expectation, expected value, first moment  the sum of the values of a random variable divided by the number of values
 geometric mean  the mean of n numbers expressed as the nth root of their product
 harmonic mean  the mean of n numbers expressed as the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of the reciprocals of the numbers
 second moment  the expected value of the square of the deviations of a random variable from the point of origin
 variance  the second moment around the mean; the expected value of the square of the deviations of a random variable from its mean value
 standard deviation  the square root of the variance
 covariance  (statistics) the mean value of the product of the deviations of two variates from their respective means
 frequency distribution  a distribution of observed frequencies of occurrence of the values of a variable
 gaussian distribution, normal distribution  a theoretical distribution with finite mean and variance
 poisson distribution  a theoretical distribution that is a good approximation to the binomial distribution when the probability is small and the number of trials is large
 bellshaped curve, gaussian curve, gaussian shape, normal curve  a symmetrical curve representing the normal distribution
 population, universe  (statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which samples can be drawn
 subpopulation  a population that is part of a larger population
 sample, sample distribution, sampling  items selected at random from a population and used to test hypotheses about the population
 random sample  a sample in which every element in the population has an equal chance of being selected
 proportional sample, representative sample, stratified sample  the population is divided into strata and a random sample is taken from each stratum
 regression, regression toward the mean, simple regression, statistical regression  the relation between selected values of x and observed values of y (from which the most probable value of y can be predicted for any value of x)
 multiple correlation, multiple regression  a statistical technique that predicts values of one variable on the basis of two or more other variables
 multicollinearity  a case of multiple regression in which the predictor variables are themselves highly correlated
 regression analysis  the use of regression to make quantitative predictions of one variable from the values of another
 regression equation, regression of y on x  the equation representing the relation between selected values of one variable (x) and observed values of the other (y); it permits the prediction of the most probable values of y
 regression coefficient  when the regression line is linear (y = ax + b) the regression coefficient is the constant (a) that represents the rate of change of one variable (y) as a function of changes in the other (x); it is the slope of the regression line
 linear regression, rectilinear regression  the relation between variables when the regression equation is linear: e.g., y = ax + b
 curvilinear regression  the relation between variables when the regression equation is nonlinear (quadratic or higher order)
 regression curve, regression line  a smooth curve fitted to the set of paired data in regression analysis; for linear regression the curve is a straight line
 time series  a series of values of a variable at successive times
 vital statistics  data relating to births and deaths and health and diseases and marriages
 correlational analysis  the use of statistical correlation to evaluate the strength of the relations between variables
 correlation matrix  a matrix giving the correlations between all pairs of data sets
 factor analysis  any of several methods for reducing correlational data to a smaller number of dimensions or factors; beginning with a correlation matrix a small number of components or factors are extracted that are regarded as the basic variables that account for the interrelations observed in the data
 analysis of variance, anova  a statistical method for making simultaneous comparisons between two or more means; a statistical method that yields values that can be tested to determine whether a significant relation exists between variables
 correlation table  a twoway tabulation of the relations between correlates; row headings are the scores on one variable and column headings are the scores on the second variables and a cell shows how many times the score on that row was associated with the score in that column
 curvilinear correlation, nonlinear correlation, skew correlation  any correlation in which the rates of change of the variables is not constant
 partial correlation  a correlation between two variables when the effects of one or more related variables are removed
 firstorder correlation  a partial correlation in which the effects of only one variable are removed (held constant)
 coefficient of correlation, correlation, correlation coefficient  a statistic representing how closely two variables covary; it can vary from 1 (perfect negative correlation) through 0 (no correlation) to +1 (perfect positive correlation)
 covariation  (statistics) correlated variation
 direct correlation, positive correlation  a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with large values of the other and small with small; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and +1
 indirect correlation, negative correlation  a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with small values of the other; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and 1
 pearson productmoment correlation coefficient, productmoment correlation coefficient  the most commonly used method of computing a correlation coefficient between variables that are linearly related
 multiple correlation coefficient  an estimate of the combined influence of two or more variables on the observed (dependent) variable
 biserial correlation, biserial correlation coefficient  a correlation coefficient in which one variable is manyvalued and the other is dichotomous
 rankdifference correlation, rankdifference correlation coefficient, rankorder correlation, rankorder correlation coefficient  the most commonly used method of computing a correlation coefficient between the ranks of scores on two variables
 kendall test  any of several nonparametric measures of correlation (used when the assumptions of standard correlational analysis are not met)
 kendall partial rank correlation  a nonparametric measure of partial correlation
 coefficient of concordance  a coefficient of agreement (concordance) between different sets of rank orderings of the same set of things
 kendall rank correlation, kendall's tau, tau coefficient of correlation  a nonparametric measure of the agreement between two rankings
 fourfold point correlation, phi coefficient, phi correlation  an index of the relation between any two sets of scores that can both be represented on ordered binary dimensions (e.g., malefemale)
 chancehalf correlation, splithalf correlation  a correlation coefficient calculated between scores on two halves of a test; taken as an indication of the reliability of the test
 tetrachoric correlation, tetrachoric correlation coefficient  a correlation coefficient computed for two normally distributed variables that are both expressed as a dichotomy
 spurious correlation  a correlation between two variables (e.g., between the number of electric motors in the home and grades at school) that does not result from any direct relation between them (buying electric motors will not raise grades) but from their relation to other variables
 bernoulli distribution, binomial distribution  a theoretical distribution of the number of successes in a finite set of independent trials with a constant probability of success
 binomial theorem  a theorem giving the expansion of a binomial raised to a given power
 probability theory, theory of probability  the branch of applied mathematics that deals with probabilities
 information theory  (computer science) a statistical theory dealing with the limits and efficiency of information processing
 actuary, statistician  someone versed in the collection and interpretation of numerical data (especially someone who uses statistics to calculate insurance premiums)
 weight, weighting  (statistics) a coefficient assigned to elements of a frequency distribution in order to represent their relative importance
 covary  vary in the same time period (of two random variables)
 bimodal  of a distribution; having or occurring with two modes
 unimodal  having a single mode
 average, mean  approximating the statistical norm or average or expected value
 average, median  relating to or constituting the middle value of an ordered set of values (or the average of the middle two in a set with an even number of values)
 average, modal  relating to or constituting the most frequent value in a distribution
 subnormal  below normal or average
 supernormal  exceeding the normal or average
 ergodic  positive recurrent aperiodic state of stochastic systems; tending in probability to a limiting form that is independent of the initial conditions
 stochastic  being or having a random variable
 significant  too closely correlated to be attributed to chance and therefore indicating a systematic relation
 nonsignificant  attributable to chance
 multivariate  pertaining to any procedure involving two or more variables
 nonparametric  not involving an estimation of the parameters of a statistic
hypernym: applied math, applied mathematics  the branches of mathematics that are involved in the study of the physical or biological or sociological worldhyponym: correlation, correlational statistics  a statistical relation between two or more variables such that systematic changes in the value of one variable are accompanied by systematic changes in the other
 nonparametric statistics  the branch of statistics dealing with variables without making assumptions about the form or the parameters of their distribution
 biometrics, biometry, biostatistics  a branch of biology that studies biological phenomena and observations by means of statistical analysis
part holonym: statistical method, statistical procedure  a method of analyzing or representing statistical data; a procedure for calculating a statistic
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